Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species (publ. 1859) is a pivotal work in scientific literature and arguably the pivotal work in evolutionary biology. The book’s full title is On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. It introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It was controversial because it contradicted religious beliefs which underlay the then current theories of biology. Darwin’s book was the culmination of evidence he had accumulated on the voyage of the Beagle in the 1830s and added to through continuing investigations and experiments since his return.
William T. Hornaday
The American bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds, became nearly extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle. William T. Hornaday’s advocacy is credited with preserving the American bison from extinction. This book, originally published in 1887, gives Mr. Hornaday's evidence of the Bison's impending extinction.
The Scientific American claims to be the oldest continuously published periodical in the United States, have launched its first publication in 1845. It has been a mainstay of popular science with in depth articles across a broad spectrum of scientific fields. In this supplement are short articles ranging through such topics as Insanity from Alcohol, Discovery of Ancient Church in Jerusalem, Preparation of Lard for Use in Pharmacy, and The New Russian Torpedo Boat.
This is the 6th and last edition of "On The Origin of Species" with all additions and corrections, often considered the Definitive Edition
Published in 1665, this is the first publication of the Royal Society and considered to be the first scientific best-seller. As opposed to the Latin of other publications of the time like Newton's 'Principia Mathematica', it was written in English to make it accessible to all. Robert Hooke uses the then fairly new microscope to cover many different subjects including insects, plants, organic material, and even the stars and moon, all fully illustrated by Hooke in detailed hand-drawn diagrams.
Creative Evolution (French: L'Évolution créatrice) is a 1907 book by French philosopher Henri Bergson. Its English translation appeared in 1911. The book provides an alternate explanation for Darwin's mechanism of evolution, suggesting that evolution is motivated by an élan vital, a "vital impetus" that can also be understood as humanity's natural creative impulse. The book was very popular in the early decades of the twentieth century, before the Neodarwinian synthesis was developed.
The book also develops concepts of time (offered in Bergson's earlier work) which significantly influenced modernist writers and thinkers such as Marcel Proust. For example, Bergson's term "duration" refers to a more individual, subjective experience of time, as opposed to mathematical, objectively measurable "clock time." In Creative Evolution, Bergson suggests that the experience of time as "duration" can best be understood through creative intuition, not through intellect.
Aristotle's Masterpiece, also known as The Works of Aristotle, the Famous Philosopher, is a sex manual and a midwifery book that was popular in England from the early modern period through to the 19th century. It was first published in 1684 and written by an unknown author who falsely claimed to be Aristotle. As a consequence the author is now described as a Pseudo-Aristotle, the collective name for unidentified authors who masqueraded as Aristotle. It is claimed that the book was banned in Britain until the 1960s, although there was no provision in the UK for "banning" books as such. However reputable publishers and booksellers might have been cautious about vending Aristotle's Masterpiece, at least in the wake of the 1857 Obscene Publications Act.
Leonardo da Vinci
This is a compilation of the thoughts on art, science and life of Leonardo da Vinci, translated by Maurice Baring and edited by Lewis Einstein.
Eminent British botanist Agnes Arber provides an authoritative history of printed Herbals -- books widely used in early modern Europe to catalogue the uses of different kinds of plants. While Herbals often reflected pre-scientific and magical beliefs about the properties of plants, Arber's work reveals that they were also critical to the early development of botany and medicine as empirical sciences. A classic in the history of science.
Prior to the emergence of paleontology and comparative anatomy as scientific disciplines at the end of the 18th century, it was generally known that there were species of animals that had disappeared completely. The term "extinction" originally applied to the extinguishing of fires or erasing of one's debt. It was not until 1784 that the term extinction was used to denote the complete eradication of a species of living being. In 1901, Frederic A. Lucas penned an overview of vertebrate animals whose only evidence of being remained in fossil records. The book focuses primarily on vertebrate animals, from fish to mammals.
This is a book in the "Understanding the Atom Series" from the Division of Technical Information, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. The authors discuss topics of The Machinery of Inheritance, Mutations, Radiation, Dose and Consequences.
Frederick Walker Mott
From the Preface: "The contents of this little book formed the subject of three lectures delivered at the Royal Institution "On the Mechanism of the Human Voice" and three London University lectures at King's College on "The Brain in relation to Speech and Song." I have endeavoured to place this subject before my readers in as simple language as scientific accuracy and requirements permit. Where I have been obliged to use technical anatomical and physiological terms I have either explained their meaning in the text, aided by diagrams and figures, or I have given in brackets the English equivalents of the terms used. I trust my attempt to give a sketch of the mechanism of the human voice, and how it is produced in speech and song, may prove of interest to the general public, and I even hope that teachers of voice production may find some of the pages dealing with the brain mechanism not unworthy of their attention."
The book is intended to ground beginners in Structural Botany and the principles of vegetable life, mainly as concerns Flowering or Phanerogamous plants, with which botanical instruction should always begin; also to be a companion and interpreter to the Manuals and Floras by which the student threads his flowery way to a clear knowledge of the surrounding vegetable creation. Such a book, like a grammar, must needs abound in technical words, which thus arrayed may seem formidable; nevertheless, if rightly apprehended, this treatise should teach that the study of botany is not the learning of names and terms, but the acquisition of knowledge and ideas. No effort should be made to commit technical terms to memory. Any term used in describing a plant or explaining its structure can be looked up when it is wanted, and that should suffice. On the other hand, plans of structure, types, adaptations, and modifications, once understood, are not readily forgotten; and they give meaning and interest to the technical terms used in explaining them.
William Diller Matthew
America has had a fascination with dinosaurs, particularly since the wild enthusiasm of Jurassic Park and its sequels. The term "dinosaur" was coined in 1841 by the Victorian scientist Sir Richard Owen. By the end of the 19th century, geologists and paleontologists had described fossil skeletons of many groups, and museums competed for the best dinosaur fossils. In this 1915 book, famed paleontologist William Diller Matthew describes fossils from the American museum collections, including the carnivores such as Tyrannosaurus Rex, the amphibious plant eaters such as Brontosaurus, and the horned dinosaurs such as Triceratops. A perfect primer for those who are intrigued by the giants that ruled the earth before mammals.
The title tells all, along with other observations on insect life from the famed accidental entomologist of 19th Century France..
Sir Richard Owen coined the term "dinosaur" ("Terrible Reptile" or "Fearfully Great Reptile") in the 19th century. When Harry G. Seeley, a student of law at that time, attended a lecture on flying reptiles, his interest in paleontology was piqued, and he pursued paleontology for the remainder of his life. He determined that dinosaurs could be divided into two groups, the lizard-hipped dinosaurs and the bird-hipped dinosaurs. He is also credited with characterizing flying dinosaurs as warm-blooded active flyers rather than cold-blooded passive gliders. His popular book on the flying dinosaurs, Dragons of the Air, is a comprehensive treatise on the structure, classification, and possible evolutionary origins of the Pterosaurs as well as their relationship to birds.
An examination of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and subsequent texts, written for the general public at the turn of the twentieth century, "[...] to dwell on the various significant facts that have been discovered since Darwin's time, and to offer certain lines of evidence never before presented in this connection and which seem to add much strength to the general argument.[...]" (Preface)
"The Royal Society is a Fellowship of many of the world's most eminent scientists and is the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence." (from its Mission Statement). As scientists have explored the world around them, observed and tried to explain natural phenomena, they have been invited to present papers to the Royal Society. Edmond Halley (of Halley's Comet fame) was an eminent member of the society and gathered together some of the most interesting papers of his day. Today, we may see errors in the logic or calculations, based on current knowledge, but these papers are unedited and as presented at the time and show how scientific knowledge was expanding in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries
John Addington Symonds
“Society lies under the spell of ancient terrorism and coagulated errors. Science is either wilfully hypocritical or radically misinformed.”
John Addington Symonds struck many an heroic note in this courageous (albeit anonymously circulated) essay. He is a worthy Virgil guiding the reader through the Inferno of suffering which emerging medico-legal definitions of the sexually deviant were prepared to inflict on his century and on the one which followed. Symonds pleads for sane human values in a world of Urnings, Dionings, Urano-Dionings and Uraniasters - in short, the whole paraphernalia of Victorian taxonomies and undigested Darwinism which, superimposed on the “terrorism” of religion, labelled and to some extent created the specimen “homosexual.”
A discussion of the “manly love” poems of Walt Whitman leads the author to speculate on a better future for the criminalised mutual passions of men; yet he is obliged to defer the dream, for “the world cannot be invited to entertain it.”
This is more than a book about bees and their lives; the author talks about his cats, red ants, and insect psychology in general. Jean Henri Fabre also made waves in his native 19th Century France by insisting that girls be included in his science classes, so I dedicate this recording to certain young women who risk their lives or even the less important attentions of boys simply to learn.
Jacob Calvin Cooper
Although published to promote the business of walnut production, this short volume describes the current science and practice of growing walnuts in the early twentieth century with particular reference to the state of Oregon.
Translated from Italian, it delves into the physiology of love from a scientific standpoint, in beautiful writing.
Robert N Bader
In recent years the number of people interested in keeping amphibians and reptiles in captivity has grown rapidly. All too often, these same people have little knowledge of the proper care needed for their captives, nor do they know where to turn in order to learn the needs of their animals.It is the intent of the authors of this special issue to offer the proper information needed to successfully keep amphibians and reptiles in captivity. We are by no means THE experts on the subject, nor do we claim to cover all the facts. However, we do hope that enough information is furnished to answer most of the common questions asked by people.
Austin L. Rand
Canadian zoologist, Austin L. Rand, takes a divergence from his scholarly works on ornithology to give us 60 entertaining sketches of bird life and lore from Birds Bathing to Courtship Feeding.
From the author's introduction: "In looking back over the preparation of these sketches I feel as though each evening I'd gathered up the bits and pieces left over from the day's work and fashioned them into designs for my own amusement and the edification of my family. Truly it's as though I'd used stray feathers, fallen from the bird skins I'd handled, and fitted them together into something of wider interest than the original.. . . . This series of articles is intended to be interesting and entertaining."
Earl W. Phelan
Radioisotopes in Medicine is an educational booklet published in 1966 as part of the Understanding the Atom series by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Written in clear language for the general public, the booklet covers the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioactive isotopes like technetium 99m and iodine 131.
Earl W. Phelan
This is a book in the "Understanding the Atom Series" from the Division of Technical Information, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. The author gives a short overview of the field and outlines the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes in medicine with examples of application. The book gives an accurate historical view of the state of medical radiotherapy in 1966.
This is a work written about the plague in France and how to prevent its spread. It is considered an important historical work for the understanding of transmittable diseases.
This is a book in the "Understanding the Atom Series".from the Division of Technical Information, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. The authors explore general cell theory, radioisotopes as "biologic detectives," the basics of DNA and RNA in cell structure, protein synthesis and the role of radioisotopes in research.
Grace Coleridge Frankland
The author provides a fascinating look at the emerging science of bacteriology at the start of the twentieth century including early progress in understanding and preventing diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. The book also includes chapters on the spread of disease through close contact with infected persons as well as from contaminated drinking water and milk. Water purification methods as well as the stability of various disease-causing organisms to extremes of heat and cold is discussed. The final chapter includes a very interesting discussion of the development of anti-venoms for the treatment of snake bite and related poisons.
This book is devoted to the study of invertebrate animals. While most people associate the word "animal" with fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, 90% of the animal species on earth are invertebrates, i.e., they have no backbone. Protozoans and invertebrate animals are found world-wide, from the bottom of the oceans to the the rain forests, ice caves, and our own back yards. Many invertebrates still reside in the oceans, while others dwell in our houses, back yards and gardens, in ponds and streams, and on the menus in seafood restaurants. Holders's book represents a traversal of several dozen familiar and not-so-familiar animals without backbones whose ancestors date back to the Cambrian period 500 million years ago.
Rai Bahadur A. Mitra
Dr. Rai Bahadur A. Mitra who was the Chief Medical Officer in Kashmir presents a short treatise on the bubonic plague. The book ranges from a short history of the bubonic plague, including an account of the great 1665 plague in London, through description of the disease, treatment and prevention.
John Woodhouse Audubon
John Woodhouse Audubon (1812-1862), son of the famous painter John James Audubon and an artist in his own right, joined Col. Henry Webb's California Company expedition in 1849. From New Orleans the expedition sailed to the Rio Grande; it headed west overland through northern Mexico and through Arizona to San Diego, California. Cholera and outlaws decimated the group. Many of them turned back, including the leader. Audubon assumed command of those remaining and they pushed on to California, although he was forced to abandon his paints and canvases in the desert…. Throughout the whole of this long journey Mr. Audubon took notes of scenes and occurrences by the way. In his descriptions he exhibits the keen observation of the naturalist and the trained eye of the artist. The result is a remarkable picture of social conditions in Mexico, of birds and trees, of sky and mountains and the changing face of nature, of the barrenness of the desert and the difficulties of the journey, of the ruined missions of California, of methods of mining, and of the chaos of races and babel of tongues in the gold fields. It was manifestly impossible to keep a daily journal, and the entries were made from time to time as opportunity occurred. Considering the circumstances under which they were taken, the notes are remarkable for their accuracy. Because it was not edited by Audubon, the text (and this recording) ends abruptly.
This volume displays the romance of birds in beautiful prose and dialog in simple language for children and adults alike. Written by a mother and son team of naturalists, chapters describe various aspects of the life and habits of birds highlighting specific birds from owls to hummingbirds. From the introduction:“Seek the children, little book: Bid them love the bird's retreat . . . Bid them find their secrets out, How to understand their words.”
The American Bee Journal is the “oldest bee paper in America established in 1861 devoted to scientific bee-culture and the production and sale of pure honey. Published every Wednesday, by Thomas G. Newman, Editor and Proprietor” In this issues are topics including Foul Brood and Its Propagation, Wintering Bees in the Cellar, Mailing Queen-Bees Long Distances, and a biography of Franklin Wilcox.
Another in the series of Little Masterpieces in Science, The Naturalist as Interpreter and Seer includes essays and excerpts from the works of Charles Darwin, Alfred R. Wallace, Thomas H. Huxley, Leland O. Howard and George Iles. The following topics are covered -The Origin of Species, The Descent of Man, Mimicry and Protective Resemblances Among Animals, Evolution of the Horse, Fighting Pests with Insect Allies, Flowers, and Electricity. Summary by J. M. Smallheer
The American Bee Journal is the “oldest bee paper in America established in 1861 devoted to scientific bee-culture and the production and sale of pure honey. Published every Wednesday, by Thomas G. Newman, Editor and Proprietor” In this issues are topics from Bee-Culture in Cities to Queen Raising and Breeding.
The American Bee Journal is the “oldest bee paper in America established in 1861 devoted to scientific bee-culture and the production and sale of pure honey. Published every Wednesday, by Thomas G. Newman, Editor and Proprietor” In this issues are topics from Management of Bees in Winter to Artificial Queens, and a special tribute to James T. Langstroth.
The American Bee Journal is the “oldest bee paper in America established in 1861 devoted to scientific bee-culture and the production and sale of pure honey. Published every Wednesday, by Thomas G. Newman, Editor and Proprietor” In this issue are included articles on wintering bees, foulbrood, introducing queens, hives, and reports from Vermont, New York, Illinois, and Massachusetts, among other topics and correspondence.
The American Bee Journal is the “oldest bee paper in America established in 1861 devoted to scientific bee-culture and the production and sale of pure honey. .Published every Wednesday, by Thomas G. Newman, Editor and Proprietor” In this volume are short articles and correspondence on a variety of topics from Royal Jelly to the Honey and Beeswax Market.
Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley was an English biologist (comparative anatomist). He was the most effective supporter of Darwin's Theory of Evolution and had a strong interest in scientific education - in schools, universities, and for the general public . He has been described as "the premier advocate of science in the nineteenth century [for] the whole English-speaking world". This volume consists of popular lectures he gave on biology and geology and addresses he delivered on the same subjects to scientific bodies.
This book tells of a girl named Alice falling through a rabbit hole into a fantasy world populated by peculiar, anthropomorphic creatures.