Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke

The third Point.

Having treated in the first poynt, of the definition of Chocolate, the quality of the Cacao, and of the other Ingredients; and in the second Point, of the Complexion, which results from the mixture of them; There remaines now in the third poynt, to shew the way how to mingle them: And first I will bring the best Receipt, and the most to the purpose, that I could find out; although it be true which I have said, that one Receipt cannot be given, which shall be proper for all; that is to be understood of those, who are sick; for those that are strong, and in health, this may serve: and for the other (as I have said in the conclusion of the first Poynt) every one may make choyse of the Ingredients, as they may be usefull, to this, or that part of his body.

The Receipt is this.

To every 100. Cacaos, you must put two cods of the*Chiles long red Pepper, of which I have spoken before, and are called in the Indian Tongue, Chilparlagua; and in stead of those of the Indies, you may take those of Spaine which are broadest, & least hot. One handfull of Annis-seed Orejuelas, which are otherwise called Pinacaxlidos: and two of the flowers, called Mechasuchil, if the Belly be bound. But in stead of this, in Spaine, we put in six Roses of Alexandria beat to Powder: One Cod of Campeche, or Logwood: Two Drams of Cinamon; Almons, and Hasle-Nuts, of each one Dozen: Of white Sugar, halfe a pound: of Achiote enough to give it the colour. And if you cannot have those things, which come from the Indies, you may make it with the rest.

The way of Compounding.

The Cacao, and the other Ingredients must be beaten in a Morter of Stone, or ground upon a broad stone, which the Indians call Metate, and is onely made for that use: But the first thing that is to be done, is to dry the Ingredients, all except the Achiote; with care that they may be beaten to powder, keeping them still in stirring, that they be not burnt, or become black; and if they be over-dried, they will be bitter, and lose their vertue. The Cinamon, and the long red Pepper are to be first beaten, with the Annis-seed; and then beate the Cacao, which you must beate by a little and little, till it be all powdred; and sometimes turne it round in the beating, that it may mixe the better: And every one of these Ingredients, must be beaten by it selfe; and then put all the Ingredients into the Vessell, where the Cacao is; which you must stirre together with a spoone; and then take out that Paste, and put it into the Morter, under which you must lay a little fire, after the Confection is made. But you must be very carefull, not to put more fire, than will warme it, that the unctuous part doe not dry away. And you must also take care, to put in the Achiote in the beating; that it may the better take the colour. You must Searse all the Ingredients, but onely the Cacao; and if you take the shell from the Cacao, it is the better; and when you shall find it to be well beaten, & incorporated (which you shall know by the shortness of it) then with a spoone take up some of the Paste, which will be almost liquid; and so either make it into Tablets; or put it into Boxes; and when it is cold it will be hard. To make the Tablets you must put a spoonfull of the Paste upon a piece of paper, the Indians put it upon the leaf of a Planten-tree; where, being put into the shade, it growes hard; and then bowing the paper, the Tablet falls off, by reason of the fatnesse of the paste. But if you put it into any thing of earth, or wood, it sticks fast, and will not come off, but with scraping, or breaking. In the Indies they take it two severall waies: the one, being the common way, is to take it hot, with Atolle, which was the Drinke of Ancient Indians (the Indians call Atolle pappe, made of the flower of Maiz, and so they mingle it with the Chocolate, and that the Atolle may be more wholesome, they take off the Husks of the Maiz, which is windy, and melancholy; and so there remaines onely the best and most substantiall part.) Now, to returne to the matter, I say, that the other Moderne drinke, which the Spaniards use so much, is of two sorts. The one is, that the Chocolate, being dissolved with cold water, & the scumme taken off, and put into another Vessell, the remainder is put upon the fire, with Sugar; and when it is warme, then powre it upon the Scumme you tooke off before, and so drinke it. The other is to warme the water; and then, when you have put it into a pot, or dish, as much Chocolate as you thinke fit, put in a little of the warme water, and then grinde it well with the molinet; and when it is well ground, put the rest of the warme water to it; and so drinke it with Sugar.

Besides these former wayes, there is one other way; which is, put the Chocolate into a pipkin, with a little water; and let it boyle well, till it be dissolved; and then put in sufficient water and Sugar, according to the quantity of the Chocolate; and then boyle it againe, untill there comes an oyly scumme upon it; and then drinke it. But if you put too much fire, it will runne over, and spoyle. But, in my opinion, this last way is not so wholsome, though it pleaseth the pallate better; because, when the Oily is divided from the earthy part, which remaines at the bottome, it causeth Melancholy; and the oily part loosens the stomacke, and takes away the appetite: There is another way to drink Chocolate, which is cold; and it takes its name from the principall Ingredient, and is called Cacao; which they use at feasts, to refresh themselves; and it is made after this manner. The Chocolate being dissolved in water with the Molinet, take off the scumme or crassy part, which riseth in greater quantity, when the Cacao is older, and more putrified. The scumme is laid aside by it selfe in a little dish; and then put sugar into that part, from whence you tooke the scumme; and powre it from on high into the scumme; and so drink it cold. And this drink is so cold, that it agreeth not with all mens stomacks; for by experience we find the hurt it doth, by causing paines in the stomacke, and especially to Women. I could deliver the reason of it; but I avoid it, because I will not be tedious, some use it, &c.

There is another way to drinke it cold, which is called Cacao Penoli; and it is done, by adding to the same Chocolate (having made the Confection, as is before set downe) so much Maiz, dryed, and well ground, and taken from the Huske, and then well mingled in the Morter, with the Chocolate, it falls all into flowre, or dust; & so these things being mingled, as is said before, there riseth the Scum; and so you take and drink it, as before.

There is another way, which is a shorter and quicker way of making it, for men of businesse, who cannot stay long about it; and it is more wholsome; and it is that, which I use. That is, first to set some water to warm; and while it warms, you throw a Tablet, or some Chocolate, scraped, and mingled with sugar, into a little Cup; and when the water is hot, you powre the water to the Chocolate, and then dissolve it with the Molinet; and then without taking off the scum, drink it as is before directed.

The fourth Part.

There remaines to be handled in the last Point, of the Quantity, which is to be drunke: at what Time; and by what persons: because if it be drunk beyond measure, not onely of Chocolate, but of all other drinkes, or meates, though of themselves they are good and wholsome, they may be hurtfull. And if any finde it Opilative, it comes by the too much use of it; as when one drinkes over much Wine, in stead of comforting, and warming himselfe, he breeds, and nourisheth cold diseases; because Nature cannot overcome it, nor turne so great a quantity into good nourishment. So he that drinkes much Chocolate, which hath fat parts, cannot make distribution of so great a quantity to all the parts; and that part which remaines in the slender veines of the Liver, must needs cause Opilations, and Obstructions.

To avoid this inconvenience; you must onely take five or six ounces, in the morning, if it be in winter; and if the party who takes it, be Cholerick, in stead of ordinary water, let him take the distilled water of Endive. The same reason serves in Summer, for those, who take it physically, having the Liver hot and obstructed. If his Liver be cold and obstructed, then to use the water of Rubarb. And to conclude, you may take it till the Moneth of May, especially in temperate dayes. But I doe not approve, that in the Dogdayes it should be taken in Spaine, unlesse it be one, who by custome of taking it, receives no prejudice by it. And if he be of a hot Constitution, and that he have neede to take it in that season, let it, as is said before, be mingled with water of Endive; and once in foure dayes, and chiefely when he findes his stomacke in the morning to be weake and fainting. And though it be true, that, in the Indies, they use it all the yeare long, it being a very hot Countrey, and so it may seeme by the same reason it may be taken in Spaine: First, I say, that Custome may allow it: Secondly, that as there is an extraordinary proportion of heate, so there is also of moisture; which helpes, with the exorbitant heat, to open the pores; and so dissipates, and impoverisheth our substance, or naturall vigor: by reason whereof, not only in the morning, but at any time of the day, they use it without prejudice. And this is most true, that the excessive heate of the Country, drawes out the naturall heate, and disperseth that of the stomack and of the inward parts: Insomuch that though the weather be never so hot, yet the stomack being cold, it usually doth good. I do not onely say this of the Chocolate, which, as I have proved, hath a moderate heate; But if you drinke pure wine, be the weather never so hot, it hurts not, but rather comforts the stomack; and if in hot weather you drinke water, the hurt it doth is apparant, in that it cooles the stomack too much; from whence comes a viciated Concoction, and a thousand other inconveniences.

You must also observe, that it being granted, as I have said, that there are earthy parts in the Cacao, which fall to the bottome of the Cup, when you make the drinke, divers are of the opinion, that, that which remaines, is the best and the more substantiall; and they hurt themselves not a litle, by drinking of it. For besides, that it is an earthy substance, thick, and stopping, it is of a malancholy Nature; and therefore you must avoid the drinking of it, contenting your selfe with the best, which is the most substantiall.

Last of all, there rests one difficulty to be resolved, formerly poynted at; namely, what is the cause, why Chocolate makes most of them that drinke it, fat. For considering that all of the Ingredients, except the Cacao, do rather extenuate, than make fat, because they are hot and dry in the third degree. For we have already said, that the qualities which do predominate in Cacao, are cold, and dry; which are very unfit to adde any substance to the body. Neverthelesse, I say, that the many unctuous parts, which I have proved to be in the Cacao, are those, which pinguifie, and make fat; and the hotter ingredients of this Composition, serve for a guide, or vehicall, to passe to the Liver, and the other parts, untill they come to the fleshy parts; and there finding a like substance, which is hot and moyst, as is the unctuous part, converting it selfe into the same substance, it doth augment and pinguifie. Much more might be said from the ground of Philosophy, and Physique; but because that is fitter for the Schooles, than for this discourse; I leave it, and onely give this Caution, that in my Receipt, you may adde Mellon seeds, and seeds of Pompions of Valencia, dryed, and beaten into powder, where there is any heat of the Liver or Kidnyes. And if there be any obstructions of the Liver, or Spleene, with any cold distemper, you may mixe the powder of Ceterach; to which you may adde Amber, or Muske, to please the scent.

And it will be no small matter, to have pleased all, with this Discourse.


How to make use of the Chocolate,
to be taken as a drinke, exceeding
cordiall for the comfort of
the healthfull, and also for
those in weaknesse and Consumptions,
to be dissolved
in Milke or Water.

If you please to take it in milke, to a quart, three ounces of Chocolate will be sufficient: Scrape your Chocolate very fine, put it into your milke when it boiles, work it very well with the Spanish Instrument called Molenillo between your hands: which Instrument must be of wood, with a round knob made very round, and cut ragged, that as you turne it in your hands, the milke may froth and dissolve the Chocolate the better: then set the milke on the fire againe, untill it be ready to boyle: having the yelke of two eggs well beaten with some of the hot milke; then put your eggs into the milke, and Chocolate and Sugar, as much as you like for your taste, and worke all together with the Molenillo, and thus drinke a good draught: or if you please you may slice a little Manchet into a dish, and so eate it for a breakfast: you may if you please make your Chocolate with Water and Sugar, working it after the same order with your Molenillo, which for some weake stomacks may chance to be better liked. And many there be that beat Almonds, and strayne them into the water it is boyled, and wrought with the Chocolate and Sugar: others like to put the yelkes of eggs as before in the milke, and even sweeten it with Sugar to your taste: If you drinke a good draught of this in a morning, you may travell all the day without any other thing, this is so Substantiall and Cordiall.

The manner of making Chocolate.

Set a Pot of Conduit Water over the fire untill it boiles, then to every person that is to drink, put an ounce of Chocolate, with as much Sugar into another Pot; wherein you must poure a pint of the said boiling Water, and therein mingle the Chocolate and the Sugar, with the instrument called El Molinillo, untill it be thoroughly incorporated: which done, poure in as many halfe pints of the said Water as there be ounces of Chocolate, and if you please, you may put in one or two yelks of fresh Eggs, which must be beaten untill they froth very much; the hotter it is drunke, the better it is, being cold it may doe harme. You may likewise put in a slice of white bred or Bisquet, and eate that with the Chocolate. The newer and fresher made it is, the more benefit you shall finde by it; that which comes from forreigne parts, and is stale, is not so good as that which is made here.


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