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Catechism of Familiar Things; Their History, and the Events Which Led to Their Discovery, A

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<SPAN name="CHAPTER_XVII" id="CHAPTER_XVII"></SPAN>CHAPTER XVII.</h2> <h3><span class="smcap">Architecture, Sculpture, Use of Money, Navigation</span>.</h3> <p><b>What is meant by Architecture?</b></p> <p>The art of building or erecting edifices fit for the habitation of man, to defend him from the weather, and for his domestic comfort and convenience; for devotion, trade, and other purposes, and for the use of civilized life in every capacity.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Capacity</i>, state, condition.</p></div> <p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_157" id="Page_157"></SPAN>[157]</span></p> <p><b>Is not this an art of great antiquity?</b></p> <p>It is almost as ancient as human society; the changes of the seasons first led men to build themselves huts or cabins, into which they might retire for shelter; in process of time, their manner of building gradually improved, and habitations were constructed of more stately forms and elegant proportions, and greater skill and variety were displayed in their ornaments Hence arose the Five Orders or manners of building.</p> <p><b>Of what were the first huts composed?</b></p> <p>Probably of the branches of trees driven into the ground, and covered with mud and stubble; at length, as men became more expert, they placed trunks of trees upright, and laid others across them to sustain the outer coverings; from this they took the hint of a more regular architecture, and built edifices of brick and stone; the trunks of trees which supported their dwellings gave them a notion of pillars or columns, which they afterwards erected of more durable materials. Among uncivilized tribes at this day, some reside underground, having their dirty dwellings entirely closed during the winter months; in warmer regions, their habitations are built of stakes, leaves, and turf, in the shape of a soldier's tent. In Africa, their kraals or huts are constructed in this manner, but of a circular form, with a hole at the top to let out the smoke. In many of the South Sea Islands, the natives, when first discovered, had progressed still further, having learnt to elevate the roofs on poles, and to fill in the sides of their houses with boughs or rushes, mud or sods.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Probably</i>, most likely.</p> <p><i>Edifice</i>, a building.</p> <p><i>Notion</i>, idea.</p> <p><i>Durable</i>, lasting.</p></div> <p><b>What people are represented by the ancient writers as having brought the art of Building to a greater state of perfection?</b></p> <p>The inhabitants of the city of Tyre, to whom Solomon had recourse for workmen to build the Temple. Isaias, in his <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_158" id="Page_158"></SPAN>[158]</span>twenty-third chapter, speaks of the Tyrians and Egyptians, as having brought it to a great degree of magnificence; as may be drawn from the various accounts handed down to us, and the remains of their obelisks, pyramids, &amp;c.</p> <p><b>What is an Obelisk?</b></p> <p>A very high and slender four-sided pyramid, raised as an ornament in some public place; and frequently covered with inscriptions and hieroglyphics.<SPAN name="FNanchor_16_16" id="FNanchor_16_16"></SPAN><SPAN href="#Footnote_16_16" class="fnanchor">[16]</SPAN> This kind of monument appears to be very ancient; they were first made use of to declare to posterity the principal precepts of philosophy; to mark the hours of the day by the shadows which they cast on the ground; and, in after-times, to immortalize the actions of heroes, and perpetuate the memory of persons beloved.</p> <div class="footnotes"><p><SPAN name="Footnote_16_16" id="Footnote_16_16"></SPAN><SPAN href="#FNanchor_16_16"><span class="label">[16]</span></SPAN> See <SPAN href="#CHAPTER_XIV">Chapter XIV</SPAN>.</p> </div> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Inscription</i>, something written or engraved.</p> <p><i>Hieroglyphics</i>, emblems by which words were implied. They were used before the invention of alphabets.</p> <p><i>Implied</i>, signified, denoted.</p> <p><i>Posterity</i>, succeeding generations, descendants.</p> <p><i>Immortalize</i>, to render immortal,&mdash;which means never-dying; to perpetuate the memory of anything.</p></div> <p><b>What is a Pyramid?</b></p> <p>A solid, massive edifice, rising from a square, triangular, or other base, gradually diminishing in size till it ends in a point at the top. Like the obelisk, pyramids were sometimes erected to preserve the memory of singular events, or to transmit to future ages the glory and magnificence of princes; but oftener as funeral monuments and receptacles for the dead, particularly kings.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Triangular</i>, three-sided, having three angles.</p> <p><i>Diminishing</i>, growing smaller.</p> <p><i>Receptacle</i>, the place in which a thing is deposited.</p></div> <p><b>Is it known who were the erectors of these Buildings?</b></p> <p>No; it is a curious fact that the Egyptian pyramids, so celebrated for their size and great antiquity, should have the time of their erection and the names of their founders wrapt in such complete mystery. All the different authors who have written <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_159" id="Page_159"></SPAN>[159]</span>concerning them, disagree in their accounts of those who built them, and nothing certain is known of their history.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Founder</i>, one who establishes or erects.</p> <p><i>Mystery</i>, profound secresy.</p></div> <p><b>What other nations excelled in the art of Building?</b></p> <p>The Greeks and Romans, from whom we derive it, also greatly excelled in this art. Grecian architecture was in its highest glory under Pericles. Among the Romans, it arrived at its greatest perfection under the Emperor Augustus. The five orders of ornamental architecture invented by the ancients, at different times, and on different occasions, are of Grecian and Italian origin. They are the Tuscan, the Doric, the Ionic, the Corinthian, and the Composite; each possessing its peculiar form and beauty, and found in all the principal buildings of the Christian world.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Christian</i>, professing the religion of Christ; the term is applied to those who believe our Lord Jesus Christ to be the only true God and Saviour of the world.</p></div> <p><b>Who was Pericles?</b></p> <p>A celebrated Athenian statesman, orator, and general, who gained several victories over the Lacedemonians and other enemies of his country.</p> <p><b>Are all the species of ornamental building confined to those nations already mentioned?</b></p> <p>By no means; besides the Grecian and Roman orders, other civilized nations possess their separate styles; as the Hindoos, Chinese, Moors, &amp;c.; and nothing can be more grand, harmonious, and picturesque, than each of these in the beautiful specimens which are to be seen in their several countries. The Saxons, also, had a simple style of architecture, distinguished by semi-circular arches, and massive plain columns; the Normans, too, invented a beautiful kind called the Gothic, distinguished by its lightness and the number of its ornaments, and by its pointed arches and pillars carved to imitate several combined together; the Gothic style is found in many old cathedrals.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_160" id="Page_160"></SPAN>[160]</span></p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Hindoos</i>, inhabitants of Hindostan, in India.</p> <p><i>Moors</i>, inhabitants of Morocco, a kingdom of Barbary, in Africa.</p> <p><i>Harmonious</i>, corresponding in all its parts with equal beauty and elegance.</p> <p><i>Picturesque</i>, like a picture.</p> <p><i>Saxons</i>, inhabitants of Saxony, a portion of Germany.</p> <p><i>Semi-circular</i>, only half circular.</p></div> <p><b>Describe the Five Orders of Architecture.</b></p> <p>The Tuscan (from Tuscany,) is the most simple and devoid of ornament, and its columns or pillars are plain and massive. The Doric (from the Dorians, in Greece,) is durable and noble in appearance, having its columns plain like the Tuscan, but the upper parts more ornamental. The Ionic, (from Iona, in Greece,) is neither so plain as the Doric, nor so richly elegant as the Corinthian; but is distinguished from the first two orders by having its columns or pillars fluted instead of plain, and the upper part of them (called the capitals,) adorned by the figures of rams' horns carved on them. The Corinthian is very rich and delicate, with fluted pillars, and the tops beautifully ornamented with leaves, &amp;c. The invention of this order is ascribed to Callimachus, a Corinthian sculptor. The Composite is compounded of the other four; it is very much like the Corinthian, and is also called the Roman or Italian order.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Devoid</i>, free from, destitute.</p></div> <p><b>What is Sculpture?</b></p> <p>The art of cutting or carving wood, stone, and other materials; and forming of them various figures or representations of men, beasts and other objects. The term is mostly limited to carving images or statues in stone. This art is of great antiquity; the sacred writings inform us of it in many passages, as for instance in those in which are mentioned Laban's images, carried away by Rachel; the golden calf of the Israelites, &amp;c. Sculpture as an art is probably more ancient than painting.</p> <p><b>What country was the most highly celebrated for its sculpture?</b></p> <p>Greece, which produced many celebrated sculptors, of whom <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_161" id="Page_161"></SPAN>[161]</span>the most eminent were Phidias, an Athenian, the great master of this art, who lived in the time of Pericles, 408 years before Christ; Lysippus, a native of Sicyon, near Corinth; and Praxiteles, a native of Magna Grecia.</p> <p><b>What event proved fatal to this art?</b></p> <p>The death of Alexander the Great was followed by a visible decline in all the fine arts; but the fatal blow to their existence was given by the success of the conquering Romans, who reduced Greece to a Roman province.</p> <p><b>Was Sculpture always performed in Stone?</b></p> <p>No; at first statues and other figures were formed of wood or baked clay, afterwards of stone, marble and metals; though these last were not brought to any degree of perfection, till about three hundred years before Christ. The Greeks were famous for their works in ivory; the great master of the art of carving statues in it was Phidias.</p> <p><b>What progress did the Romans make in Sculpture?</b></p> <p>Sculpture, during their early history, existed rather as a plant of foreign growth, partially cultivated by them, than as a native production of their own land. They collected, indeed, some of the most exquisite samples of Grecian sculpture, and invited to their capital the yet remaining sculptors of Greece, by whose labors not only Rome itself was embellished, but also many of the cities of Asia Minor, Spain, and Gaul, then under the Roman dominion; yet the taste for sculpture does not appear to have been cultivated in any measure corresponding with the advantages thus afforded them in the study of the best models of the art. The best works were produced by Greek artists, and chiefly Athenian, while the attempts of the Romans were unskilfully executed.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Gaul</i>, the ancient name of France.</p> <p><i>Model</i>, pattern.</p></div> <p><b>Did it always continue thus?</b></p> <p>No; from the time of the Emperor Constantine, sculpture, and the rest of the fine arts, gradually revived. While inspired, <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_162" id="Page_162"></SPAN>[162]</span>perhaps, with a taste for sculpture by means of the scattered remains of Grecian art, the Roman artists drew, at the same time, from their own resources, and were by no means servile copyists of the sculptors of a former age. The first academy of the art was founded at Florence, in 1350, and at the close of the same century, sculpture was firmly established in Italy, and itinerant sculptors, not unskilful in their art, wandered from thence to Germany, France, and even to England. The most eminent master of the art was Michael Angelo, born in 1474, who was also a painter and architect; from his time, to the latter end of the last century, sculpture again gradually declined, but under Canova, a native of Possagno, in the Venetian Alps, it revived. He was born in 1757. Besides the above mentioned, were a number of others of various degrees of talent, as well as some still living.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Servile</i>, slavish, mean.</p> <p><i>Itinerant</i>, wandering.</p></div> <p><b>When was the knowledge of Sculpture introduced into England?</b></p> <p>At the time of its conquest by the Romans; but the art appears to have been very rude and imperfect. From the time of the Norman invasion, and still further in the time of the Crusades, an improvement, however, began to show itself in British sculpture. But it is probable that most of their best architectural and sculptural works were executed by foreigners, members of those societies of wandering sculptors before mentioned. Under Edward the Third, the art appears to have been much cultivated by Englishmen. It is well known that two Italian sculptors were employed in England during the sixteenth century. John of Padua, a pupil of Michael Angelo, was master of works to Henry the Eighth. In the reign of Charles the First, English sculptors flourished, although their works are of a very low order.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Invasion</i>, hostile entrance upon the rights or possessions of another.</p> <p><i>Architectural</i>, belong to Architecture.</p> <p><i>Sculptural</i>, belonging to Sculpture.</p></div> <p class="center"><ANTIMG src="images/image_13.jpg" alt="GATHERING TURPENTINE BY SCRAPING." width="483" height="330" /><br /> <span class="caption">GATHERING TURPENTINE BY SCRAPING.</span></p> <p class="center"><ANTIMG src="images/image_14.jpg" alt="DISTILLING TURPENTINE." width="482" height="332" /><br /> <span class="caption">DISTILLING TURPENTINE.</span></p> <p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_163" id="Page_163"></SPAN>[163]</span></p> <p><b>With whom may the School of British Sculptors be considered as commencing?</b></p> <p>With Banks, born in 1738, and Bacon, born in 1740; these were in every respect English artists. But the most eminent worker in the art which that country has yet produced, was John Flaxman, born in 1755. Our own country also may boast of sculptors of superior talents, and from the beautiful specimens of the art which have appeared, the attainment of a high degree of excellence in it is to be anticipated.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Attainment</i>, the act of arriving at or reaching.</p> <p><i>Anticipated</i>, expected, foreseen.</p></div> <p><b>Give me a short account of this art in Germany, France, and Spain.</b></p> <p>In these countries, as in England and the United States, during their early history, many of the best works were executed by Italians. Germany appears to have made little progress in sculpture before the seventeenth century; since that period, it has produced sculptors of some eminence, although it is more celebrated for its writers on the art, than for artists of eminence in its practice. In France, sculptors of some talent are mentioned as early as the sixteenth century. Girardon and Puget were the most celebrated artists of this period. Spanish history gives a long list of native sculptors, from the commencement of the same century, but many of them are but little known beyond their own country. Berruguete, a pupil of Michael Angelo, appears to have founded the first regular school of the art. Paul de Cespides, and in the eighteenth century, Philip de Castro, were the most eminent among them.</p> <p><b>When was the use of Money first introduced?</b></p> <p>It is not known with certainty: there is, however, reason to believe that both gold and silver were very early used as money in Egypt and Asia: it was afterwards introduced into Carthage and Greece; whence it was brought to Rome; and from that city spread gradually westward, through all the Roman domin<span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_164" id="Page_164"></SPAN>[164]</span>ions. Before the use of money was introduced, the only means of trade was by barter, or the exchange of one commodity for another, a custom long retained by uncivilized nations. In time, however, men discovered the necessity of something which would enable them to trade with greater facility; the first mention of money is in the time of Abraham, who, we are told in the Bible, paid "four hundred sides of silver of common current money," for a burying place.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Current</i>, generally received, passing from hand to hand.</p></div> <p><b>Where was Carthage?</b></p> <p>Carthage, now Tunis, was a commercial city, situated on the Northern Coast of Africa, which long contended for the dominion of the Mediterranean with the Romans; but, after three wars, it was taken and destroyed by the Roman general, Scipio Africanus, in the year 251 before Christ.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Commercial</i>, carrying on commerce or trade.</p></div> <p><b>Of what substances was Money usually made?</b></p> <p>Of metals, especially the precious metals, because they possess great value in small bulk; may be kept for any length of time without loss; and their value, although not altogether invariable, yet, generally speaking, changes only by slow degrees, and is less susceptible of fluctuation than that of most other articles. At different times, and amongst various nations, however, other things, in the scarcity of metal, have been substituted for it, as shells, wood, leather, paper, or even pasteboard on extraordinary occasions.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Fluctuation</i>, unsteadiness; a wavering.</p></div> <p><b>Of what form was money generally made?</b></p> <p>The form of money has been more various than its materials; the ancient Britons used as money, rings or bars of iron or tin; the Lacedemonians used iron bars quenched with vinegar. The money of most nations usually bore an impression peculiar to themselves, as, for instance, the sicle of the Jews was marked <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_165" id="Page_165"></SPAN>[165]</span>with the golden pot of manna on one side, and Aaron's rod on the other; other coins with the figures of animals, &amp;c.; in shape, coins were either round, irregular, or square.</p> <p><b>Have the terms Money and Coin the same signification?</b></p> <p>Not exactly; by money is understood any matters, such as metal, wood, leather, glass, horn, paper, fruits, shells, &amp;c., which have currency as a medium in commerce. Coin is a particular species always made of metal, and struck off according to a certain process called coining; it is not of equal antiquity with money. In fact, the very commodities themselves were the first moneys, that is, were current one for another by way of exchange. Coin is a piece of metal converted into money, by the impression of certain marks or figures thereon. The first coining of silver took place at Rome, two hundred and sixty-nine, and of gold, two hundred and six years before Christ: the Romans, after the commonwealth, stamped their coins with the image of the reigning emperor, which custom was followed by most civilized nations. Coins were, and are, frequently, struck in commemoration of a particular event or celebrated person.</p> <p><b>When was the use of stamped coin introduced into Britain?</b></p> <p>After the arrival of the Romans in that island, the natives imitated them, coining both gold and silver with the images of their kings stamped upon them; but the Romans, when they subdued the nation, suppressed also their coins, and obliged them to use their own; hence the number of Roman coins found among the relics of antiquity in that island.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Suppressed</i>, put aside, hindered from circulation.</p> <p><i>Relics</i>, remains.</p></div> <p><b>What does the first coined money in ancient Britain appear to have been?</b></p> <p>Copper money; but after the arrival of the Saxons in England, scarcely any copper money was used for many centuries, nor did it become common till 1672; it was first used in Scotland and Ireland in 1340.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_166" id="Page_166"></SPAN>[166]</span></p> <p><b>What is a Mint?</b></p> <p>A place established by public authority for coining money. In the United States, the first mint was in Philadelphia; branches have been established in other parts of the Union. In most countries, the privilege of coining money is regarded as a prerogative of the sovereign power. Formerly, in Great Britain, cities, towns, and even individuals, were allowed to coin money for the convenience of trade; but now this is forbidden, except at the Mint in the Tower of London.</p> <p><b>What is meant by <SPAN name="NAVIGATION" id="NAVIGATION"></SPAN>Navigation?</b></p> <p>The science or art by which the mariner is taught to conduct his ship from one place to another. Some, perhaps, will consider the formation and use of the Ark, as a first step towards the invention of this art; but it is an erroneous idea, because the direction and means for accomplishing this immense work were afforded by God, for the preservation of righteous Noe and his family. Besides, nothing is recorded of any means or of any necessity for its occupants <i>navigating</i> it to any particular place, or from one place to another; no intention of this sort is apparent, the ark being merely a vast shelter, rendered capable of floating on the water.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Erroneous</i>, wrong, in error.</p> <p><i>Apparent</i>, manifest, made to appear.</p></div> <p><b>What probably gave the first idea of Navigation?</b></p> <p>Accident most likely showed that wood always floats; and on the fallen trunk of a tree, perhaps, some one ventured beyond his depth, away from the land. The trunk of a tree, hollowed out, for a more convenient position of the body, formed the canoe, usually found among uncivilized nations to this day. From this rude beginning, at great intervals of time, and a slow pace of improvement, the art has at length arrived at its present state of advancement.</p> <p><b>What nation first applied this art to the purposes of Trade?</b></p> <p>The Phenicians (especially those of Tyre, their capital city, and Sidon,) were the first who adapted it to the purposes of <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_167" id="Page_167"></SPAN>[167]</span>commerce, and constructed vessels fit to make voyages to foreign countries; the poverty and narrowness of their land, as well as their vicinity to two or three good ports, and their natural genius for traffic, urging them to seek foreign supplies. We hear of them trading to Arabia, India, Persia, Greece, Africa, Spain, and even as far as Britain.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Vicinity</i>, nearness, neighborhood.</p> <p><i>Traffic</i>, Trade, commerce.</p></div> <p><b>Who were the Phenicians?</b></p> <p>The inhabitants of Phenicia, a country of Syria, in Asia.</p> <p><b>Which was the more ancient city, Tyre or Sidon?</b></p> <p>Sidon,&mdash;having been built, as is supposed, soon after the Flood, by Sidon, the eldest son of Chanaan. Tyre, about 25 miles to the south, was built about the year 1252 before Christ, by a colony from Sidon. The Phenicians planted numerous colonies on the shores of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, and diffused, to a great extent, among their uncivilized neighbors the arts and improvements of civilized life. One of their most celebrated colonies was that founded by them on the northern coast of Africa; and it was this colony that built the famous city of Carthage.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Diffused</i>, spread abroad, scattered.</p></div> <p><b>Did not Carthage afterwards become as flourishing as the parent city of Tyre?</b></p> <p>In time, Carthage not only equalled Tyre itself, but surpassed it,&mdash;pursuing the course the Phenicians had begun, and sending its merchant fleets through Hercules' Pillars, (now the Straits of Gibraltar,) along the western coast of Africa, and northwards, along the coast of Europe, visiting particularly Spain, Gaul, &amp;c. They even undertook voyages, the sole object of which was to discover new countries and explore unknown seas. The Carthaginians appear to have been the first who undertook voyages solely for the sake of discoveries.</p> <p><b>Were not both these celebrated cities destroyed?</b></p> <p>Tyre, whose immense riches and power were the subject of <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_168" id="Page_168"></SPAN>[168]</span>many ancient histories, was destroyed by the Grecian Emperor Alexander the Great, and its navigation and commerce transferred by him to Alexandria, a new city which he meditated making his capital. Alexandria, in a short time, became the most important commercial city in the world. Thus arose navigation among the Egyptians; it was afterwards so successfully cultivated by them, that Tyre and Carthage (which last, as before mentioned, was subdued by the Romans,) were quite forgotten.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Transferred</i>, removed.</p> <p><i>Capital</i>, chief city or town in a state or kingdom.</p></div> <p><b>Who was Alexander the Great?</b></p> <p>The son of Philip, King of Macedonia, in Greece; he was celebrated for his great ambition, and the number of his conquests; he overturned the Persian empire, and subdued many cities and provinces in the East.</p> <p><b>Did not Alexandria undergo the same fate as Tyre and Carthage?</b></p> <p>Egypt was at last reduced to a Roman province, after the battle of Actium, and its trade and navigation fell into the hands of the Emperor Augustus, in whose time Alexandria was little inferior to Rome; and the magazines of the capital of the world were supplied with merchandise from the capital of Egypt. Alexandria, however, at last underwent the fate of Tyre and Carthage, being surprised by the Saracens, who overran the northern parts of Africa; and though it continued, for a while, to enjoy a considerable portion of the commerce of the Christian merchants, it afterwards remained in a languishing condition: but still, even at this day, it is a place of considerable trade.</p> <p><b>Who were the Saracens?</b></p> <p>A Mahommedan nation, occupying a portion of what is now called Arabia. They extended their conquests over a large portion of Asia, northern Africa, and Spain. Their name is derived from the word <i>Sara</i>, a desert.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_169" id="Page_169"></SPAN>[169]</span></p> <p><b>What effect had the Fall of the Roman Empire on Navigation?</b></p> <p>The fall of the Roman empire not only drew along with it its learning and the polite arts, but also the art of navigation; the Barbarians, into whose hands the empire fell, contenting themselves with enjoying the spoils of those whom they had conquered, without seeking to follow their example in the cultivation of those arts and that learning which had rendered Rome and its empire so famous.</p> <p><b>What other people, about this period, distinguished themselves in the art of Navigation?</b></p> <p>The Saracens or Arabians, whose fleets now rode triumphant in the Mediterranean; they had taken possession of Cyprus, Rhodes, and many of the Grecian islands, and extended their commerce and their discoveries in the East, far beyond the utmost knowledge of their ancestors.</p> <p><b>What other circumstance also prevented commercial intercourse from ceasing altogether?</b></p> <p>Constantinople, though often threatened by the fierce invaders, who spread desolation over Europe, was so fortunate as to escape their destructive rage. In this city, the knowledge of ancient arts and discoveries was preserved; and commerce continued to flourish there, when it was almost extinct in every other part of Europe.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Desolation</i>, destruction, ruin.</p></div> <p><b>Did the citizens of Constantinople confine their trade to the Islands of the Archipelago, and the adjacent coast of Asia?</b></p> <p>No, they took a wider range; and, following the course which the ancients had marked out, imported the productions of the East Indies from Alexandria. When Egypt was torn from the Roman Empire by the Arabians, the industry of the Greeks discovered a new channel by which the productions of India might be conveyed to Constantinople.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_170" id="Page_170"></SPAN>[170]</span></p> <p><b>Did not the Barbarians, after a while, turn their attention to Navigation and Commerce?</b></p> <p>No sooner were the brave among these nations well settled in their new provinces&mdash;some in Gaul, as the Franks; others in Spain, as the Goths; and others in Italy, as the Lombards,&mdash;than they began to learn the advantages of these arts, and the proper methods of managing them, from the people they had subdued; and that with so much success, that they even improved upon them, and set on foot new institutions for their advantage. To the Lombards, in particular, is usually ascribed the invention and use of banks, book-keeping, and exchanges. Thus the people of Italy, and particularly those of Venice and Genoa, have the glory of restoring to Europe the advantages that had been destroyed by their own ravages.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Institutions</i>, laws, regulations.</p> <p><i>Exchange</i>, a species of mercantile transactions by which the debts due to persons at a distance are paid by order, draft, or bill of exchange, without the transmission either of money or goods.</p></div> <p><b>Who were the Franks?</b></p> <p>A people who settled in Gaul; from them it took the name of Franconia, or France.</p> <p><b>Who were the Goths?</b></p> <p>An ancient people, who inhabited that part of Sweden called Gothland; and afterwards spread themselves over great part of Europe.</p> <p><b>Who were the Lombards?</b></p> <p>The Lombards, or Longobardi, were, like the Franks, a nation of Germany; who, upon the decline of the Roman Empire, invaded Italy, and, taking the city of Ravenna, erected a kingdom.</p> <p><b>Where is Ravenna?</b></p> <p>In Central Italy. It is the capital of a province of the same name; it is an ancient town, and the see of an archbishop.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>See</i>, the seat of episcopal power; the diocese of a bishop.</p> <p><i>Episcopal</i>, belonging to a bishop.</p> <p><i>Archbishop</i>, the presiding bishop of a province.</p></div> <p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_171" id="Page_171"></SPAN>[171]</span></p> <p class="center"><SPAN href="images/image_15_1.jpg"><ANTIMG src="images/image_15_2.jpg" alt="THE GRAND CANAL, VENICE, ITALY. Please click to view a larger image." width="581" height="337" title="Please click to view a larger image."/></SPAN><br /> <span class="caption">THE GRAND CANAL, VENICE, ITALY.</span></p> <p><b>What was the origin of the city of Venice?</b></p> <p>In the Adriatic Sea were a great number of marshy islands, separated only by narrow channels, but well screened and almost inaccessible, inhabited by a few fishermen. To these islands the people of Veneti (a part of Italy, situated along the coasts of the gulf,) retired when Alaric, King of the Goths, ravaged Italy. These new Islanders, little imagining that this was to be their fixed residence, did not, at first, think of forming themselves into one community, but each of the 72 islands continued a long while under its respective masters, and formed a distinct commonwealth.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Adriatic Sea</i>, a name given to the Gulf of Venice.</p> <p><i>Commonwealth</i>, a republic, a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the people.</p></div> <p><b>What circumstance caused them to unite?</b></p> <p>Their commerce becoming considerable enough to awaken the jealousy of their neighbors, they united in a body for their mutual protection: this union, first begun in the 6th century and completed in the 8th, laid the foundation of the future grandeur of the state of Venice. From the time of this union, fleets of their merchantmen sailed to all the ports of the Mediterranean; and afterwards to those of Egypt, particularly to Cairo, a new city, built by the Saracen princes, on the banks of the Nile, where they traded for spices, &amp;c. The Venetians continued to increase their trade by sea and their conquests on land till 1508, when a number of jealous princes conspired against them to their ruin; which was the more easily effected in consequence of their East Indian commerce, of which the Portuguese and French had each obtained a share.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Conspired</i>, united together in a plot.</p></div> <p><b>What is the signification of Mediterranean?</b></p> <p>Inclosed within land, or remote from the ocean. It is more particularly used to signify the sea which flows between Europe and Africa.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_172" id="Page_172"></SPAN>[172]</span></p> <p><b>Had not Venice a formidable rival in a neighboring republic?</b></p> <p>Genoa, which had applied itself to navigation at the same time with Venice, and with equal success, was long its dangerous rival, disputed with it the empire of the sea, and shared with it the trade of Egypt, and other parts, both of the East and West. Jealousy soon broke out; and, the two republics coming to blows, there was almost continual war between them for three centuries: at length, towards the end of the 14th century, the strife was ended by the fatal battle of Chioza; the Genoese, who till then had usually the advantage, lost all, and the Venetians, almost become desperate, at one decisive blow, beyond all expectation, secured the empire of the sea and their superiority in commerce.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Decisive</i>, final, conclusive.</p></div> <p><b>Where is Genoa situated?</b></p> <p>In the north-western part of Italy. It was formerly a flourishing republic, but belongs now to Italy.</p> <p><b>What event likewise contributed to the more rapid progress and diffusion of Navigation and Commerce?</b></p> <p>The Crusades: for the Genoese, Pisans, and Venetians, furnished the fleets which carried those vast armies, composed of all the nations of Europe, into Asia, upon this wild undertaking, and also supplied them with provisions and military stores. Other travellers, also, besides those whom religious zeal sent forth to visit Asia, ventured into remote countries, from motives either of commercial advantage, or those of mere curiosity.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Zeal</i>, devotion, enthusiasm.</p></div> <p><b>Who were the Pisans?</b></p> <p>Inhabitants of Pisa, an ancient town of Tuscany; it was once a great independent republic, and is still adorned with noble edifices. Pisa has long been celebrated for its remarkable leaning tower. Tuscany is a beautiful and fruitful territory of Italy; its capital, until the year 1859, was Florence.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_173" id="Page_173"></SPAN>[173]</span></p> <p><b>What were the Crusades?</b></p> <p>Holy wars, or expeditions, undertaken by the Christians against the Turks and Saracens, to recover Palestine, between the years 1100 and 1400.</p> <p><b>What causes led to these wars?</b></p> <p>Many circumstances contributed to give rise to them. They were undertaken, first, with a view to protecting the devout Christian pilgrims, who were in the habit of frequenting the venerable places where our Saviour had lived, taught, suffered, and triumphed, from the fury and avarice of the heathens; secondly, with a view to getting possession of the Holy Land itself, and of annexing it to Christendom; and thirdly, to break down the power of Mohammedanism, and to elevate the Cross in triumph and victory over Palestine.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Avarice</i>, an excessive desire of gain.</p> <p><i>Annexing</i>, adding, joining.</p></div> <p><b>What badge or sign was worn by those who engaged in the Crusades?</b></p> <p>They distinguished themselves by crosses of different colors, worn on their clothes; from which they took the name of Crois&eacute;s, or Cross-bearers; each nation wore different colors: for instance, the English had white crosses, the French red, and so on.</p> <p><b>To what invention is the art of Navigation much indebted?</b></p> <p>To that of the Mariner's Compass, in the beginning of the 14th century; and from this period may be dated the present perfection of this useful art.</p> <p><b>You have given me an account of the restoration of Navigation in Southern Europe: did not the inhabitants of the North also turn their attention to it?</b></p> <p>Yes: about the same time, a new society of merchants was formed in the northern parts, which not only carried commerce to the greatest perfection of which it was capable, till the dis<span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_174" id="Page_174"></SPAN>[174]</span>covery of the Indies, but also formed new codes of useful laws for its regulation.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Codes</i>, books or writings setting forth certain laws or rules respecting particular subjects; books of civil laws.</p></div> <p><b>Are Navigation and Commerce inseparably connected with each other?</b></p> <p>It may be considered as a general maxim, that their union is so intimate, that the fall of one inevitably draws after it that of the other; and that they will always either flourish or decline together may be seen, by examining the reason of their passing successively from the Venetians, Genoese, &amp;c., to the Portuguese and Spaniards, and from them to the English, Dutch, &amp;c.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Maxim</i>, rule, an established principle.</p> <p><i>Intimate</i>, close.</p> <p><i>Inevitably</i>, without possibility of escape, unavoidably.</p></div> <hr style="width: 65%;" /> <h2>
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