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Catechism of Familiar Things; Their History, and the Events Which Led to Their Discovery, A

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<SPAN name="CHAPTER_XVIII" id="CHAPTER_XVIII"></SPAN>CHAPTER XVIII.</h2> <h3><span class="smcap">Music, Painting, Poetry, Astronomy, Arts and Sciences, Art of Writing, and Chemistry.</span></h3> <p><b>What are the earliest accounts of Musical Instruments on record?</b></p> <p>The earliest accounts of music which we possess are to be found in the Bible, in which the state of the world before the flood is noticed. Jubal is said to have been "the father of them that play upon the harp and organ;" but it is not to be supposed that these instruments at all resembled the harp and organ of modern times. Musical instruments, in the times of David and Solomon, were used in religious services; and music was certainly employed by the Jews on many other occasions, as at funerals and weddings, at harvest home, and at festivals of all kinds.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_175" id="Page_175"></SPAN>[175]</span></p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Modern</i>, opposed to ancient, pertaining to the present time, or time not long past.</p> <p><i>Festival</i>, a rejoicing, a feast, a season dedicated to mirth.</p></div> <p><b>What nation was particularly celebrated for musical talents?</b></p> <p>The ancient Egyptians; who were so celebrated for their talents in music, that the distinguished philosophers of Greece braved many dangers, in order to study the science in Egypt; and this, at a period when the Egyptians were far from being in the same high state of civilization as their forefathers had been in earlier times. The history and monuments of ancient Egypt have many accounts and representations of musical instruments, and remains of these have lately been discovered, so that we have ocular demonstration both of their existence and form.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Civilization</i>, freedom from barbarity, polish, politeness, possession of knowledge and the arts of life.</p> <p><i>Ocular</i>, known or seen by the eye.</p> <p><i>Demonstration</i>, the act of proving with certainty.</p></div> <p><b>In how many divisions may musical instruments be arranged?</b></p> <p>There are three kinds, namely, <i>wind</i> instruments, as the trumpet, and the organ;&mdash;<i>stringed</i> instruments, as the harp or lyre, violin, &amp;c.; and instruments of <i>concussion</i>, in which the sound is produced by striking a sonorous body, as for instance the drum, bells, &amp;c.</p> <p><b>Which of these three kinds was the first invented?</b></p> <p>It is impossible, at the present day, to decide which; but it is most probable that instruments with strings were the last invented of the three kinds; and it is most likely, that of those in which sound is produced by the application of wind, the trumpet or horn was first used. This instrument, in its rudest form, was ready fashioned to the hand of man; the horn of a ram or of an ox, or some of the larger kinds of sea-shells, were soon discovered to possess the power of producing sound, by being blown into through a small hole at the pointed end.</p> <p><b>What improvement in this instrument would naturally follow?</b></p> <p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_176" id="Page_176"></SPAN>[176]</span></p> <p>Mankind having discovered the property possessed by a hollow tube of producing a certain sound, soon found that the note varied according to the length and capacity of the tube. A much greater improvement soon after took place; it was discovered that one tube answered the purpose of many by boring holes in the course of its length, and producing various musical sounds by stopping with the fingers certain of these holes. Most of our modern wind instruments are but improvements on the ancient inventions.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Tube</i>, a pipe; a long hollow body.</p></div> <p><b>Was not Vocal Music used before the invention of Instrumental?</b></p> <p><i>Vocal</i> music, namely, that produced by the human voice, (so called to distinguish it from <i>instrumental</i>, that produced by instruments,) was undoubtedly the first: for man had not only the various tones of his own voice to make his observations on, before any art or instrument was found out; but the various natural strains of birds to give him a lesson in improving it, and in modulating the sounds of which it is capable.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Modulating</i>, forming sound to a certain key.</p></div> <p><b>To what circumstance did an ancient poet ascribe the invention of stringed instruments?</b></p> <p>To the observation of the winds whistling in the hollow reeds. As for other kinds of instruments, there were so many occasions for cords or strings, that men were not long in observing their various sounds, which might give rise to stringed instruments. Those of concussion, as drums and cymbals, might result from the observation of the naturally hollow noise made by concave bodies when struck.</p> <p><b>What are the most ancient stringed instruments?</b></p> <p>The most ancient instruments of this kind, whose form is known, are those of the ancient Egyptians; among these the harp stands pre-eminent. One of the most celebrated representations of an Egyptian harp was drawn from a painting disco<span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_177" id="Page_177"></SPAN>[177]</span>vered in one of the caverns in the mountains of Egyptian Thebes, by some travellers: it is called the Theban harp, and has thirteen strings; its form is extremely elegant. This harp is supposed to be one of the kind in use before and at the time of Sesostris. Remains of Egyptian harps of a more simple construction, with only four strings, have likewise been discovered. Among the monuments of ancient Rome, there are representations of stringed instruments resembling the harp, but not equal in beauty of form to the famous Egyptian harp already mentioned.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Pre-eminent</i>, surpassing others.</p></div> <p><b>Who was Sesostris?</b></p> <p>A King of Egypt, who is said to have reigned some ages before the siege of Troy. He appears to have been celebrated for his conquests, and for the number of edifices he erected to perpetuate his fame.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Perpetuate</i>, to preserve from extinction; to continue the memory of a person or event.</p></div> <p><b>Where was Troy?</b></p> <p>Troy, anciently called Ilium, was the capital of Troas, in Asia. It became famous for the ten years' siege it sustained against the Greeks; the history of this event is commemorated in the poems of Homer and Virgil.</p> <p><b>Is not the harp an instrument of high antiquity in Great Britain?</b></p> <p>Yes: it was a favorite instrument with the ancient Saxons in Great Britain. The celebrated Alfred entered the Danish camp disguised as a harper, because the harpers passed through the midst of the enemy unmolested on account of their calling. The same deception was likewise practised by several Danish chiefs, in the camp of Athelstan, the Saxon. The bards, or harpers of old, were the historians of the time; they handed down from generation to generation the history of remarkable events, and of the deeds and lineage of their celebrated chiefs <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_178" id="Page_178"></SPAN>[178]</span>and princes. The harpers of Britain were formerly admitted to the banquets of kings and nobles: their employment was to sing or recite the achievements of their patrons, accompanying themselves on the harp. No nations have been more famous for their harps and harpers than the Welsh and Irish.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Recite</i>, to repeat or chant in a particular tone or manner.</p> <p><i>Achievement</i>, a great or heroic deed.</p> <p><i>Patron</i>, benefactor, one who bestows favors.</p></div> <p><b>What instrument was famous among the ancient Greeks?</b></p> <p>The Lyre: the invention, or rather discovery, of this instrument is ascribed by them to their most celebrated deities. It is supposed to have originated from the discovery of a dead tortoise, the flesh of which had dried and wasted, so that nothing was left within the shell but sinews and cartilages: these, tightened and contracted, on account of their dryness, were rendered sonorous. Some one, Mercury or Apollo, they affirm, in walking along, happening to strike his foot against the tortoise, was greatly pleased with the sound it produced: thus was suggested to him the first idea of a lyre, which he afterwards constructed in the form of a tortoise, and strung with the dried sinews of dead animals. The stringed instruments already described were made to give out musical sounds, by causing a vibratory motion in their strings by means of the fingers.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Sinew</i>, a tendon; that which unites a muscle to a bone.</p> <p><i>Cartilage</i>, a gristly, smooth, solid substance, softer than bone.</p> <p><i>Vibratory</i>, shaking.</p></div> <p><b>Who was Mercury?</b></p> <p>The heathen god of eloquence, letters, &amp;c., and the messenger of the other gods.</p> <p><b>Who was Apollo?</b></p> <p>The god of music, poetry, medicine, and the fine arts.</p> <p class="center"><ANTIMG src="images/image_16.jpg" alt="PICKING COTTON." width="500" height="368" /><br /> <span class="caption">PICKING COTTON.</span></p> <p class="center"><ANTIMG src="images/image_17.jpg" alt="GATHERING TEA." width="500" height="365" /><br /> <span class="caption">GATHERING TEA.</span></p> <p><b>What is a Tortoise?</b></p> <p>A well-known animal, with a thick shelly covering, belonging to the order of reptiles; there are two species, the sea and the land tortoise; the first named is called a turtle, and affords delicious food; land tortoises live to a very great age. It is only <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_179" id="Page_179"></SPAN>[179]</span> one sort which furnishes the beautiful shell so much prized. Tortoises are found in many parts of the world. The turtles on the Brazilian shore are said to be so large as to be enough to dine fourscore men: and in the Indian sea, the shells serve the natives for boats.</p> <p><b>Of what are the strings of the Lyre, &amp;c., composed?</b></p> <p>Sometimes of either brass or silver wire, &amp;c., but most commonly of catgut.</p> <p><b>What is Catgut?</b></p> <p>The intestines of sheep or lambs, dried or twisted, either singly or several together. Catgut is also used by watch-makers, cutlers, and other artificers, in their different trades. Great quantities are imported from France and Italy.</p> <p><b>Are there no other kind of Instruments besides those already described?</b></p> <p>Yes, music and musical instruments have progressively improved; and it would be a needless task to enumerate the numbers of instruments of each kind now in use; many, as for instance the organ, the piano, musical boxes, &amp;c., are exceedingly complex and ingenious in their construction, as well as remarkable for the sweetness of their various sounds; some, as the two first-named, are played with the fingers, and produce any melody or combination of sound at the will of the performer; others, as the musical-box, barrel-organ, &amp;c., produce a particular melody, or a certain number of melodies, by means of machinery. In the use of the last-named the performer is not at all indebted to his own musical skill, as he has only to turn the handle which sets the machinery in motion, and the musical box, or barrel-organ, will continue playing till it has finished the tunes to which it is set.</p> <p><b>Upon what principle do these last-mentioned instruments perform?</b></p> <p>The barrel-organ and musical box both play on nearly the same principle, though the former is turned by a handle, and <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_180" id="Page_180"></SPAN>[180]</span>the latter only requires a certain spring to be touched, in order to set it off or to stop it. Their machinery consists of a barrel pricked with brass pins; when the barrel revolves, these ping lift a series of steel springs of different lengths and thicknesses, and the vibration of these springs when released, produces the different notes.</p> <p><b>What is Painting?</b></p> <p>The art of representing objects in nature, or scenes in human life, with fidelity and expression, either in oil or water colors, &amp;c.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Fidelity</i>, truth, faithfulness.</p> <p><i>Oil Colors</i>, those colors which are mixed up with oil, as the others are with water.</p></div> <p><b>Is not this art of great antiquity?</b></p> <p>There is not the slightest doubt of it; but to name the country where it was first practised, or the circumstances attending its origin, is beyond the power of the historian. About a century after the call of Abraham, Greek and Egyptian tradition tells us of a colony planted at Sicyon, by an Egyptian, who brought with him the knowledge of painting and sculpture, and founded the earliest and purest school of Greek art. The walls of Babylon were adorned with paintings of different kinds of animals, hunting expeditions, combats, &amp;c. Allusions to this custom of the Babylonians, of decorating their walls with paintings, are found in the Bible.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Tradition</i>, a history or account delivered from mouth to mouth without written memorials; communication from age to age.</p> <p><i>Allusion</i>, reference.</p> <p><i>Decorating</i>, ornamenting.</p> <p><i>Sicyon</i>, a kingdom of Peloponnesus, in ancient Greece.</p></div> <p><b>Were the Egyptians acquainted with this art?</b></p> <p>It is now little doubted that, although painting and sculpture existed in Egypt, and were probably at their highest condition, eighteen centuries before the Christian era, yet, at a still earlier period, these arts were known in the kingdom of Ethiopia; and it is considered likely, that the course of civilization descended from Ethiopia to Egypt. There is, however, no record of any <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_181" id="Page_181"></SPAN>[181]</span>Egyptian painter in the annals of the art; and it does not appear that it ever flourished in that country, or that other nations were much indebted to Egypt for their knowledge of it.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Era</i>, age, period.</p> <p><i>Ethiopia</i>, the ancient name of the kingdoms of Nubia and Abyssinia, in Africa.</p> <p><i>Annal</i>, record, history.</p> <p><i>Exploit</i>, action, achievement, deed of valor.</p></div> <p><b>Have we any notice of this art among the Hebrews?</b></p> <p>There is no allusion made to the existence of painting among this people, and no proof that it was cultivated among them: it is supposed that the neglect of this art arose from their not being permitted to represent any object by painting.</p> <p><b>What progress did the generality of the Eastern nations make in this art?</b></p> <p>The art of painting among the Phenicians, Persians, and other Eastern nations, advanced but slowly. The Chinese appear, until a very recent period, to have contented themselves with only so much knowledge of the art as might enable them to decorate their beautiful porcelain and other wares; their taste is very peculiar, and though the pencilling of their birds and flowers is delicate, yet their figures of men and animals are distorted, and out of proportion; and of perspective they seem to have but little idea. Latterly, however, a change has taken place in Chinese art, and proofs have been given of an attempt to imitate European skill. The Japanese figures approach more nearly to beauty of style than Chinese productions of a similar kind.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Distorted</i>, having a bad figure.</p> <p><i>Perspective</i>, the science by which things are represented in a picture according to their appearance to the eye.</p></div> <p><b>Who are the Japanese?</b></p> <p>The inhabitants of Japan, an empire of Eastern Asia, composed of several large islands. They are so similar in feature, and in many of their customs and ceremonies, to the Chinese, as to be regarded by some, as the same race of men. The Japanese language is so very peculiar, that it is rarely under<span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_182" id="Page_182"></SPAN>[182]</span>stood by the people of other nations. Their religion is idolatrous; their government a monarchy, controlled by the priesthood. The people are very ingenious, and the arts and sciences are held in great esteem by them. In all respects, Japan is an important and interesting empire.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Monarchy</i>, a government in which the power is vested in a king or emperor.</p></div> <p><b>By what nations was the art of painting practised with great success?</b></p> <p>By the Greeks and Romans. Greece produced many distinguished painters, among whom Apelles was one of the most celebrated; he was a native of Cos, an island in the Archipelago, rather north of Rhodes; he flourished in the time of Alexander the Great, and witnessed both the glory and the decay of ancient art: the leading features of his style were beauty and grace. But painting was not at any period so completely national in Greece, as sculpture, its sister art; the names of one hundred and sixty-nine eminent sculptors are recorded, while only fifteen painters are mentioned. Zeuxis, of Heraclea, was another famous Greek painter, who flourished 400 years before Christ. The Romans were not without considerable masters in this art, in the latter times of the republic, and under the first emperors.</p> <p><b>What nation is supposed to have known and practised this art even before the foundation of Rome?</b></p> <p>The Etruscans, inhabitants of Etruria, whose acquaintance with the arts has excited great astonishment among those who have most deeply searched into their history, and traced their progress by means of the beautiful specimens of their works still extant. Their early works were not superior to those of other nations; but either from their intercourse with Greece, or the original genius of the people, they had attained considerable eminence in the arts of painting, sculpture, &amp;c., before Rome was founded. Pliny speaks of some beautiful pictures at Ardea <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_183" id="Page_183"></SPAN>[183]</span>and Lanuvium, which were older than Rome: and another author also says that before Rome was built, sculpture and painting existed among them.</p> <p><b>Where was Etruria situated?</b></p> <p>In Italy, on the west of the Tiber, which separated it from the territory of ancient Rome, to which it was afterwards annexed by conquest. Etruria was the ancient name of Tuscany.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Annexed</i>, united.</p></div> <p><b>Was not the art greatly obscured for some centuries?</b></p> <p>The irruption of Barbarians into Italy and Southern Europe, proved fatal to painting, and almost reduced it to its primitive state; it was not until after a long period that it was fully restored. The first certain signs of its revival took place about the year 1066, when Greek artists were sent for to adorn several of the cities of Italy. Cimabue, a native of Florence, in the thirteenth century, caught the inspiration of the Greek artists, and soon equalled their works. He was both a painter and an architect.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Irruption</i>, inroad, invasion.</p></div> <p><b>To what did this revolution in its history give rise?</b></p> <p>It caused it to be distinguished into ancient and modern. The ancient painting comprehends the Greek and Roman: the modern has formed several schools, each of which has its peculiar character and merit. The first masters who revived the art were greatly surpassed by their scholars, who carried it to the greatest state of perfection, and advanced it not only by their own noble works, but also by those of their pupils.</p> <p><b>Who were the principal masters of the Italian school?</b></p> <p>Raphael and the celebrated Michael Angelo Buonarotti; the former is regarded as the prince of modern painters, and is often styled "the divine Raphael;" he was born at Urbino, in 1483. Michael Angelo was born at Florence, in 1564, and united the professions of painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and musician. Besides these there were many other illustrious Italian painters, <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_184" id="Page_184"></SPAN>[184]</span>the principal of whom were Leonardo da Vinci, Titian, Correggio, the three Caracci, Guido, Parmegiano, Salvator Rosa, &amp;c.</p> <p><b>Was not Raphael also reckoned as excellent an architect as he was a painter?</b></p> <p>He was not only esteemed the best painter in the world, but also the best architect; he was at least so admired for skill and taste in architecture, that Leo the Tenth charged him with the building of St. Peter's Church at Rome.</p> <p><b>Who was Leo the Tenth?</b></p> <p>A great Pope, who was an ardent lover and patron of learning and the arts. He was born at Florence, in 1475, and died in 1521.</p> <p><b>Give me a list of some of the most celebrated painters besides those already mentioned.</b></p> <p>The great painters of the <i>German</i> school were Albert Durer, Holbein, Kneller and Mengs, with several others.</p> <p>Of the <i>Dutch</i> school, were Rembrandt, Gerard Dow, Mieris, Ostade, Polemberg, Berghem, and Wouvermans.</p> <p>Of the <i>Flemish</i>, Rubens, Teniers, Jordaens, and Vandyck.</p> <p>The admired painters of the <i>French</i> school, were Claude, Poussin, Le Brun, and many others.</p> <p>The <i>Spaniards</i> also have had their Murillo, Velasquez, &amp;c.</p> <p>The <i>English</i>, Hogarth, Wright, Reynolds, Wilson, Northcote, Gainsborough, Morland, Barry, and others.</p> <p>The <i>Americans</i>, Washington Allston, Benjamin West, Gilbert Stuart, John Singleton Copley, John Trumbull, G. Stuart Newton, Thomas Cole, Henry Inman, and a number of others; besides many now living, or but recently deceased.</p> <p><b>Upon what materials did the ancients paint their works?</b></p> <p>Principally upon wood; the boards or tables were prepared with a thin ground of chalk and size of some kind. Linen cloth or canvas was also employed, but there is no evidence of its use before the reign of Nero. Parchment, ivory and plaster were the other materials.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Evidence</i>, testimony, record.</p></div><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_185" id="Page_185"></SPAN>[185]</span></p> <p><b>Who was Nero?</b></p> <p>One of the Roman Emperors, a monster of cruelty, extravagance, and debauchery; he raised a dreadful persecution against the Christians, in which St. Paul was beheaded, and St. Peter crucified. At last, being deserted by his army and the senate, he destroyed himself, after a reign of fourteen years.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Debauchery</i>, wickedness.</p></div> <p><b>What is Poetry?</b></p> <p>The glowing language of impassioned feeling, generally found in measured lines, and often in rhyme. Most ancient people had their poets.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Glowing</i>, warm, energetic.</p> <p><i>Impassioned</i>, full of passion, animated.</p> <p><i>Rhyme</i>, the correspondence of the last sound of one verse to the last sound or syllable of another.</p></div> <p><b>Name a few of the ancient poets.</b></p> <p>David was an inspired poet of the Hebrews: Homer, one of the earliest poets of the Greeks: Ossian, an ancient poet of the Scots: Taliesen, an ancient poet of the Welsh: and Odin, an early poet of the Scandinavians.</p> <p><b>Who were the Scandinavians?</b></p> <p>The inhabitants of Scandinavia, the ancient name of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.</p> <p><b>What people are regarded as the Fathers of Poetry?</b></p> <p>The Greeks. Homer was the first and the prince of poets; he celebrated the siege of Troy in the Iliad and Odyssey, two epic poems which have never been surpassed. In the same kind of composition he was followed, nine hundred years after, by Virgil, in the Eneid; by Tasso, after another fifteen hundred years, in the 'Jerusalem Delivered.' The Greeks also boasted of their Pindar and Anacreon in lyric poetry; and of Aristophanes, Euripides, Sophocles, and Eschylus, in dramatic poetry.</p> <p><b>Did the Romans possess any distinguished Poets?</b></p> <p>Yes; among the epic poets were Ovid and Tibullus; among <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_186" id="Page_186"></SPAN>[186]</span>dramatists, Plautus and Terence; of didactic and philosophic poets, Lucretius, Virgil, Horace, and Silius Italicus. All these were so many miracles of human genius; and their works afford the models of their respective species of composition. Most of the works of the ancients have in sentiment, if not in spirit, been translated into English.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Miracles</i>, wonders.</p> <p><i>Genius</i>, natural talent.</p> <p><i>Respective</i>, particular.</p> <p><i>Sentiment</i>, thought, meaning.</p></div> <p><b>Did not the same revolution which undermined the Greek and Roman empires, and destroyed learning, the arts and sciences, and the taste for elegance and luxury, also prove fatal to Poetry?</b></p> <p>It did; the hordes of barbarians who overran Europe wiped out civilization in their progress, and literature, art, and science fled before the wild conquerors to find a refuge in the monastery and the convent. Here knowledge was fostered with the love and ardor which religion alone can impart. Finally, when the rude barbarians were converted, it was to the religious Orders that the world turned for the establishment of schools, and it is to the Church alone, in the person of her popes, her bishops, and her monks that we are indebted for the preservation of learning, and its revival in the fifteenth century.</p> <p><b>What celebrated Poets marked this revival?</b></p> <p>In Italy, Dante, Ariosto, Petrarch and Tasso. These were followed, in France, by Racine, Corneille, Boileau, Voltaire, La Fontaine and Delille; in England, by Chaucer, Spenser, Shakspeare, Milton, Dryden, Pope, Thomson, Young, Collins, Gray, Byron, Coleridge, &amp;c; in Scotland, by Sir Walter Scott; in Ireland, by Thomas Moore; in Germany, Klopstock, Goethe and Schiller.</p> <p><b>Name some of the distinguished poets of our own country.</b></p> <p>Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, William Cullen Bryant, James Russell Lowell, John G. Whittier, Fitz-Greene Halleck, <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_187" id="Page_187"></SPAN>[187]</span>and many others whose meritorious works will be impartially judged by a future age.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Impartially</i>, justly, without prejudice.</p></div> <p><b>Name the different kinds of Poetry.</b></p> <p>Epic, or historical; dramatic, or representative,&mdash;from drama, the name of all compositions adapted to recitation on the stage&mdash;in which are displayed, for instruction and amusement, all the passions, feelings, errors, and virtues of the human race in real life; lyric poetry, or that suited to music, as songs, odes, &amp;c; didactic, or instructive; elegiac, or sentimental, and affecting; satirical, or censorious; epigrammatic, or witty and ludicrous; and pastoral, or descriptive of country life.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Historical</i>, relating to history.</p> <p><i>Lyric</i>, pertaining to a lyre.</p> <p><i>Didactic</i>, doctrinal; relating to doctrines or opinions.</p> <p><i>Elegiac</i>, relating to elegy; mournful, sorrowful.</p> <p><i>Elegy</i>, a mournful song: a funeral composition; a short poem without points or affected elegance.</p> <p><i>Satirical</i>, severe in language; relating to satire.</p> <p><i>Satire</i>, a poem in which wickedness or folly is censured.</p> <p><i>Epigrammatic</i>, relating to epigram,&mdash;a short poem ending in a particular point or meaning, understood but not expressed.</p> <p><i>Pastoral</i>, from <i>pastor</i>, a shepherd; relating to rural employments and those belonging to shepherds.</p></div> <p><b>What is Astronomy?</b></p> <p>The science which treats of the heavenly bodies, their arrangement, magnitudes, distances and motions. The term Astronomy is derived from two Greek words, signifying the <i>law</i> of the <i>stars</i>; <i>astron</i> being the Greek for star.</p> <p><b>What can you say of its origin?</b></p> <p>Its origin has been ascribed to several persons, as well as to different nations and ages. Belus, King of Assyria; Atlas, King of Mauritania; and Uranus, King of the countries situated on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, are all recorded as the persons to whom the world is indebted for this noble science. Its origin is generally fixed in Chaldea. Some choose, however, to attribute it to the Hebrews; others to the Egyptians,&mdash;from whom, they say, it passed to the Greeks.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_188" id="Page_188"></SPAN>[188]</span></p> <p><b>What country is meant by Mauritania?</b></p> <p>Mauritania is the name formerly given to a country in the northern part of Africa. Chaldea is the ancient name for Babylonia, now called Irak Arabi, a district of Asiatic Turkey.</p> <p><b>By whom were the heavenly bodies first divided into Constellations or groups?</b></p> <p>By the ancients. The phenomena of the heavens were studied in very early ages by several nations of the East. The Chaldeans, the Indians, the Chinese and the Egyptians have all left evidence of the industry and ingenuity with which their observations were conducted.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Phenomena</i>, appearances.</p> <p><i>Ingenuity</i>, skilfulness.</p></div> <p><b>What progress did they make in Astronomy?</b></p> <p>They built observatories,&mdash;invented instruments for observing and measuring with correctness,&mdash;separated the stars into different groups or constellations, for the more easily finding any particular star,&mdash;gave particular names to most of the moving stars or planets, and noted the periods which each took to move through its apparent path in the heavens; and in many other ways the ancients helped to lay the foundations of that mass of astronomical knowledge which men of later ages have brought to more maturity.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Constellation</i>, a cluster of fixed stars; an assemblage of stars.</p> <p><i>Observatory</i>, a place so built as to command a view of the heavens.</p></div> <p><b>Who first taught the true system of the Universe?</b></p> <p>Pythagoras, one of the most distinguished philosophers of antiquity. He is thought to have been a native of Samos, an island in the Archipelago; he flourished about 500 years before Christ, in the time of Tarquin, the last King of Rome. Pythagoras was the first among the Europeans who taught that the Earth and Planets turn round the Sun, which stands immovable in the centre;&mdash;that the diurnal motion of the Sun and Fixed Stars is not real, but apparent,&mdash;arising from the Earth's motion round its own axis, &amp;c. After the time of Pythagoras, Astronomy sunk into neglect.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_189" id="Page_189"></SPAN>[189]</span></p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Philosopher</i>, one who studies philosophy.</p> <p><i>Philosophy</i>, all knowledge, whether natural or moral. The term is derived from the Greek, <i>philos</i>, lover, and <i>sophia</i>, wisdom.</p></div> <p><b>By whom was it revived?</b></p> <p>By the family of the Ptolemies, kings of Egypt, who founded a school of astronomy at Alexandria, which produced several eminent astronomers, particularly one named Hipparchus. The Saracens, on their conquest of Egypt, became possessed of the knowledge of Astronomy, which they carried with them out of Africa into Spain; and thus, after a long exile, it was introduced afresh into Europe.</p> <p><b>Did not Astronomy from this time make great progress?</b></p> <p>Yes; it made considerable advances, being cultivated by the greatest geniuses, and patronized by the greatest princes. The system of the Ptolemies, called the Ptolemaic, had hitherto been used, with some slight alterations; but Copernicus, an eminent astronomer, born at Thorn, in Polish Prussia, in 1473, adopted the system which had been taught by Pythagoras in Greece, five or six hundred years before the time of Ptolemy. About the same time with Copernicus flourished Tycho Brahe, born in Denmark, 1546.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Geniuses</i>, men gifted with superior mental faculties.</p> <p><i>Mental</i>, belonging to the mind.</p> <p><i>Faculties</i>, powers of doing anything, whether menial or bodily; abilities; powers of the mind.</p></div> <p><b>What next greatly forwarded this interesting science?</b></p> <p>The introduction of telescopes by Galileo, who by their means discovered the small stars or satellites which attend the planet Jupiter; the various appearances of Saturn; the mountains in the Moon; the spots on the Sun; and its revolution on its axis.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Satellites</i>, attendants.</p></div> <p><b>What celebrated Astronomer arose in England?</b></p> <p>The immortal Sir Isaac Newton, born in 1642, at Woolsthorpe, in Lincolnshire, who has, perhaps, contributed more to the advancement of this science than any one who had before existed. Dr. William Herschel, a native of Hanover, in Ger<span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_190" id="Page_190"></SPAN>[190]</span>many, born in 1738, likewise made many useful discoveries in Astronomy: it was he who first discovered the seventh primary planet, which he named, in honor of King George the Third, the Georgium Sidus. George the Third took him under his especial patronage, and constituted him his astronomer, with a handsome pension. He resided at Slough, near Windsor, where he died, in 1822.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Patronage</i>, support, favor.</p> <p><i>Constituted</i>, appointed to any particular office or rank.</p> <p><i>Pension</i>, yearly allowance of money.</p></div> <p><b>What other circumstance contributed to the advancement of Astronomy?</b></p> <p>The increasing perfection of our astronomical instruments,&mdash;by means of which, the most important and interesting discoveries with regard to the heavens have been made. It is now supposed that the myriads of the heavenly bodies are all distinct worlds; it is certain, from observations made by the aid of the telescope, that the moon has its mountains, valleys, and caverns. One of the greatest astronomers of our day was the eminent Father Secci.</p> <p><b>What are generally meant by the Arts?</b></p> <p>Systems of rules designed to facilitate the performance of certain actions; in this sense, it stands opposed to science. The terms <i>art</i> and <i>science</i> are often incorrectly used. Science relates to principles, and art to practice. The word art is derived from a Greek word signifying utility, profit. Arts are divided into liberal and mechanical.</p> <p><b>What are the Liberal Arts?</b></p> <p>The liberal arts are those that are noble and ingenious, or which are worthy of being cultivated without any immediate regard to the pecuniary profit arising from them. They are Poetry, Music, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Astronomy, and Navigation. The arts which relate more especially to the sight and hearing are also called Fine Arts.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_191" id="Page_191"></SPAN>[191]</span></p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Pecuniary</i>, relating to money.</p> <p><i>Military</i>, belonging to soldiers, or to arms.</p></div> <p><b>What do the Fine Arts usually include?</b></p> <p>All those which are more or less addressed to the sentiment of taste, and whose object is pleasure; these are more especially Music, Painting, Sculpture, and Poetry.</p> <p><b>What are the Mechanical Arts?</b></p> <p>Those in which the hand and body are more concerned than the mind, and which are chiefly cultivated for the sake of the profit attending them. To this class belong those which furnish us with the necessaries of life, and which are commonly called trades, as carpentry, weaving, printing, &amp;c. There are also many other arts, as the art of writing, &amp;c.</p> <p><b>When was the art of Writing invented?</b></p> <p>It is supposed that the art was invented before the Deluge: it was certainly practised long before the time of Moses. There were, doubtless, many steps taken in slow succession before the invention of alphabetic writing. Perhaps the earliest method might have been that which is still employed among the untutored tribes of North American Indians, who record events by picture-painting of the rudest description. Picture-painting was afterwards gradually converted into the hieroglyphical system, which is still the only kind of writing among the Chinese. It is not known who invented the alphabetic system of writing.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Deluge</i>, a flood: the term used in particular to denote that mighty flood of water with which God swept away the first nations of the earth for their wickedness.</p> <p><i>Alphabetic</i>, from alphabet, the series of written signs of language called letters. The word is formed from <i>alpha</i>, <i>beta</i>, the names of the first two letters of the Greek alphabet.</p> <p><i>Untutored</i>, ignorant, unlearned.</p></div> <p><b>Were not the Egyptians quite early acquainted with this art?</b></p> <p>Yes, they were acquainted with two or three kinds of writing, as well as the one in which symbolical characters were employed, which was not used for common purposes. On the <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_192" id="Page_192"></SPAN>[192]</span>contrary, such symbols had something of a sacred character about them, being unknown to the common people, and only to be deciphered by the priests. Obelisks and pyramids were the great national records; and on these the hieroglyphics were constantly used, because unintelligible to the people, until expounded by those who had the exclusive office of explaining them.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Symbolical</i>, having the nature of signs or symbols&mdash;that is, representations of different things.</p> <p><i>Deciphered</i>, read, understood, made out.</p> <p><i>Unintelligible</i>, that cannot be understood.</p> <p><i>Expounded</i>, explained, interpreted.</p></div> <p><b>Were Hieroglyphics employed before or after Alphabetic Writing?</b></p> <p>They were undoubtedly employed at first from necessity, not from choice or refinement; and would never have been thought of, if alphabetical characters had been known. This style of writing must be reckoned as a rude improvement upon picture-writing, which had previously been used. Hieroglyphics were employed by the Egyptian priests in after times, as a kind of sacred writing, peculiar to themselves, and serving to give an air of mystery to their learning and religion, though fallen into disuse for other purposes.</p> <p><b>What materials were employed by ancient nations in Writing?</b></p> <p>The Eastern nations used tables of stone, brass, and wood, so that the characters were engraved instead of being written in the usual manner. The instrument used in writing on wood, was made of metal, and called a <i>style</i>. For stone, brass, &amp;c., a chisel was employed. When the bark and leaves of trees, skins, and other materials of a more pliant nature, superseded the above-named tables, the chisel and the style, or stylus, gave way to the reed and cane, and afterwards to the quill, the <i>hair</i> pencil (as now used by the Chinese,) and the convenient lead pencil.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_193" id="Page_193"></SPAN>[193]</span></p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Engraved</i>, inscribed with the graver, a tool used in engraving on stone, &amp;c.</p> <p><i>Pliant</i>, yielding, easily bent.</p></div> <p><b>Have not the various nations among whom this useful art has been cultivated, adopted different ways of arranging their written characters?</b></p> <p>Yes. The Hebrews, Chaldeans, Syrians, Arabians, and Egyptians, begin each line on the right side, and write towards the left. The Greeks, Latins, and all European nations, write from left to right. The natives of China, Japan, Cochin China, Corea, &amp;c., write from the top to the bottom of the page.</p> <p><b>Where are Cochin China, and Corea?</b></p> <p>Cochin China is a country situated in Eastern Asia. Corea is a peninsula of Asia, subject to China.</p> <p><b>What is meant by Science?</b></p> <p>A clear and certain knowledge of anything founded on self-evident principles, or demonstration. The term is, however, more particularly applied to a systematic arrangement of the principles relating to any branch of knowledge, and is employed in this sense in opposition to art: thus the theoretical knowledge of chemistry is ranked as a science, but the practical part is called an art; thus it is sometimes spoken of as a science, sometimes as an art.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Practical</i>, relating to action, not merely speculative.</p></div> <p><b><SPAN name="CHEMISTRY" id="CHEMISTRY"></SPAN>What is Chemistry?</b></p> <p>A science which enables us to discover the peculiar properties of natural bodies, either in their simple or compound state, and the elementary or first principles of which they are composed, by the processes of analysis and combination. Chemistry treats of those changes in natural bodies which are not accompanied by <i>sensible</i> motions.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Compound</i>, mixed.</p> <p><i>Analysis</i>, a separation of a compound body into the several parts of which it consists.</p></div> <p><b>Is not the knowledge of Chemistry very ancient?</b></p> <p>Chemistry, as far as it regards the separating of metals from <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_194" id="Page_194"></SPAN>[194]</span>foreign matters in the ore, smelting and refining them, is of the highest antiquity; it is even supposed to have been understood and practised in the antediluvian world.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Antediluvian</i>, before the flood.</p></div> <p><b>What nation appears to have excelled in Chemistry in early times?</b></p> <p>The Egyptians were no mean proficients in many chemical operations, especially in the arts of working metals, softening ivory, vitrifying flints, and imitating precious stones. Chemistry, however, experienced the common fate of all the arts, at the decline of the Eastern empire.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Proficients</i>, those who have made great progress in any art or science.</p></div> <p><b>By whom was it revived?</b></p> <p>After having long lain buried, the famous Roger Bacon revived it; and from his time to the present day it has gradually progressed to a state of perfection. In former times, the art of chemistry consisted only in the knowledge of working metals, &amp;c.; but in latter ages, its bounds have been greatly enlarged. The knowledge of Chemistry leads to many interesting and important discoveries, and the arts and manufactures are greatly indebted to its aid; indeed, it is requisite to be a good chemist, in order to attain to perfection in many of them.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Requisite</i>, necessary.</p></div> <p><b>By what other name has Chemistry been known?</b></p> <p>It was sometimes called <i>Alchemy</i>; by which is properly understood a refined and mysterious species of chemistry, formerly much practised.</p> <p><b>What were its objects?</b></p> <p>The discovery of the art of converting metals into gold, including the search after the "Philosopher's Stone," by which this change was to be effected; and the discovery of a panacea or medicine for the cure of all diseases.</p> <p><b>What was the Philosopher's Stone?</b></p> <p>A substance, for numbers of years eagerly sought for, which<span class="pagenum"> <SPAN name="Page_195" id="Page_195"></SPAN>[195]</span>was to convert metals, such as lead, copper, &amp;c. into gold. This unknown substance was called the Philosopher's Stone, probably on account of the number of learned men who engaged in the search after it.</p> <p class="center"><ANTIMG src="images/image_18.jpg" alt="UNITED STATES SIGNAL STATION, PIKE'S PEAK, COLORADO." width="581" height="323" /><br /> <span class="caption">UNITED STATES SIGNAL STATION, PIKE'S PEAK, COLORADO.</span></p> <p><b>Was this search successful?</b></p> <p>No; but the delusion lasted several centuries, notwithstanding the failures, losses, and disappointments of those engaged in it. Indeed, so severe and ruinous were these, in many instances, that laws were passed to forbid the study. In Germany, many of the alchemists who had the unfortunate reputation of possessing this wonderful stone were imprisoned and furnished with apparatus till they should purchase their liberty by making an ounce of gold.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Delusion</i>, an error arising from false views.</p> <p><i>Apparatus</i>, a complete set of instruments or tools, by which anything is made, or any operation performed.</p></div> <p><b>Was any gold ever produced by this method?</b></p> <p>Not a particle; the story of a stone having the property of converting the baser metals into gold being merely an absurd fable: yet, although the pursuits of Alchemy were the most preposterous that can be conceived, the ardor with which they were followed, and the amazing number of experiments made in consequence, led to the discovery of many facts to which Chemistry is highly indebted.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Preposterous</i>, absurd, foolish; contrary to nature or reason.</p></div> <p><b>You inform me that Chemistry enables us to discover the properties of bodies by means of <i>analysis</i> and <i>combination</i>: what do these terms imply?</b></p> <p>If a chemist wishes to examine the properties of a compound body, he proceeds by analysis&mdash;that is, by a separation of the substance to be examined into its constituent parts. The chemical examination of bodies is generally effected by producing a change in the <i>nature</i> or <i>state</i> of the body under examination. This change is frequently brought about by the addition of some <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_196" id="Page_196"></SPAN>[196]</span><i>other</i> substance which forms a combination with a part of the substance examined, and leaves the remainder in a detached state.</p> <p><b>By what <i>means</i> do Chemists effect a change in the qualities or states of natural bodies?</b></p> <p>It is generally effected by means of <i>heat</i>, which has a tendency to separate the particles of bodies from each other; or by the <i>mixture</i> or <i>combination</i> of some other matter with the matter intended to be examined. The mixture of two or more compounds often produces a decomposition by means of chemical <i>affinity</i>, a property which different species of matter have to unite with each other; and which is sometimes called <i>elective affinity</i>. Thus it may be observed, chemists have not only the power of decomposing natural bodies, but of producing by combination various other substances, such as are not found in the kingdom of nature.</p> <p><b>What do you mean by <i>decomposition</i>?</b></p> <p>In chemical language, it means the separation of a compound body into its simple elements.</p> <p><b>Give me an example.</b></p> <p>Water may be decomposed, and reduced into oxygen and hydrogen,&mdash;both of them simple substances incapable of further decomposition.</p> <p><b>Is not the work of decomposition perpetually going forward?</b></p> <p>Yes; and <i>combustion</i> is one of the great agents in this work. By it animal and vegetable substances are converted into water and carbonic acid, by the union of their hydrogen and carbon with the oxygen of the air. These, in time, are again absorbed by vegetables, and again decomposed to set the oxygen at liberty to produce fresh combustions.</p> <p><b>Of what use are the two remaining substances, Hydrogen and Carbon?</b></p> <p>These are appropriated by the vegetative organs to their <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_197" id="Page_197"></SPAN>[197]</span>growth and nourishment, while the oxygen with which the carbon was combined is abundantly given off to purify the air and render it fit for the respiration of animals.</p> <p><b>Give me an idea of the mode in which Chemists ascertain the <i>affinity</i> of bodies, by relating an experiment.</b></p> <p>Dissolve a tea-spoonful of sugar of lead in water, and pour the clear solution into a decanter or large glass bottle. Then take a small piece of zinc, and twist round it some brass or copper wire, so as to let the ends of the wire depend from it in any agreeable form. Suspend the zinc and wire in the solution which has been prepared; in a short time, metallic lead will deposit itself on the zinc and along the wire. This is a beautiful illustration of chemical affinity; the acid, which constitutes a part of the sugar of lead, has a stronger affinity for the zinc than for the lead, and, consequently, will combine with the zinc, and form a compound which remains in solution, while the lead is precipitated on the zinc and wire in the form of a brilliant tree of metal.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Affinity</i>, in chemistry, that attraction which takes place between the elements of bodies, and forms compounds.</p></div> <p><b>What does the word Nature signify?</b></p> <p>In the above sense, the system of the universe; the creation, the works of God. By the kingdom of nature is meant the world and all things in it: nature is divided into three kingdoms, the animal, vegetable, and mineral.</p> <p><b>What are the different states of natural bodies?</b></p> <p>All bodies are either solid, liquid, or aeriform. By solid bodies are meant those whose parts unite so firmly as to resist the impression or penetration of other bodies; by liquid, those substances whose parts do not unite firmly, but have free motion among themselves; by aeriform, fluid substances, having the form or nature of air. Liquid substances are nothing more than solids converted into liquids by heat, a certain increase of which would convert the liquids into vapor.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_198" id="Page_198"></SPAN>[198]</span></p> <p><b>What other name is given to Liquids?</b></p> <p>They are likewise called fluids: we call the air, also, a fluid, because it flows like a fluid, and light substances will float in it.</p> <p><b>What is the cause of bodies floating on liquids?</b></p> <p>It is an established law of nature, that all substances which weigh less than an equal bulk of any liquid, will float on the surface of this liquid. Thus a cork will float on water, while a stone sinks to the bottom. The cork will not float in the air, though lighter than water; and the stone is not heavier than the <i>whole</i> of the water, but more so than a portion of water of its <i>own bulk</i>,&mdash;and thus it sinks in it. Stones also differ in their weight or gravity: for instance, some of the asbestus kind are <i>lighter</i> than water. Iron, brass, indeed, nearly all substances, except gold and platina, will float upon mercury, because they are lighter than this liquid.</p> <p><b>What is the cause of bodies being either solid, liquid, or aeriform?</b></p> <p>When the principle of <i>attraction</i> prevails, it causes them to become solid; when caloric prevails, they become aeriform. Fluidity is, apparently, a medium between the two.</p> <p><b>How is the state of Solidity in bodies accounted for?</b></p> <p>The particles of all bodies are subject to two opposite powers, <i>repulsion</i> and <i>attraction</i>; between which they remain in equilibrium. While the <i>attractive</i> force remains strongest, the body remains in a state of solidity; but if heat destroys this force, the particles lose their cohesion, and the body ceases to be solid.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Cohesion</i>, act of sticking together, union of the constituent parts of a body.</p></div> <p><b>Which is supposed to be the most natural state of all bodies?</b></p> <p>Solidity; for by the <i>combination</i> of caloric with them we can reduce most substances to the fluid state; while the greatest number of <i>liquid</i> substances take a <i>solid</i> form by the loss of <span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_199" id="Page_199"></SPAN>[199]</span>caloric. Thus, water congeals and forms ice; and even the gases show this disposition to become solid, when they lose their <i>elasticity</i> by forming some <i>combination</i>.</p> <p><b>Explain the terms <i>Repulsion</i> and <i>Attraction</i>.</b></p> <p>Repulsion is a peculiar property in the particles of matter, which gives them a constant tendency to recede from each other. Attraction is an unknown force, which causes bodies or their particles to approach each other. The particles of all bodies possess this property, which causes them to adhere, and preserves the various substances around us from falling in pieces.</p> <p><b>What different kinds of Attraction can you mention?</b></p> <p>Attraction may be distinguished into that which takes place between bodies at sensible distances, and that which manifests itself between the <i>particles</i> of matter at insensible distances.</p> <p><b>Give an example of the first kind of attraction.</b></p> <p>One of the most familiar instances of attraction at sensible distances is seen in the descent of heavy bodies to the ground. When a stone is lifted up in the hand, the earth's attraction, which previously caused it to remain at its surface, is overcome; but, as soon as the hand is withdrawn, the stone falls to the earth. The force which causes this is called the <i>attraction of gravitation</i>, or simply <i>gravitation</i>.</p> <p><b>How is the second kind of attraction, or that between the particles of bodies, subdivided?</b></p> <p>Into the <i>attraction of aggregation</i>, or <i>cohesion</i>; and <i>chemical attraction</i>, or <i>affinity</i>. The former takes place between particles which are <i>similar</i>, and the latter between those which are <i>dis-similar</i>. All the operations of chemistry are founded upon the force of affinity which Nature has established between the particles of different kinds of matter, and which enables the chemist to produce <i>new</i> compounds differing more or less from the substances by whose union they were formed.</p><p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_200" id="Page_200"></SPAN>[200]</span></p> <p><b>Is it, then, necessary for chemists to understand the relative nature of all substances?</b></p> <p>Yes; because the basis of this science consists in an <i>analytical</i> examination of the works of Nature; an investigation of the properties and uses of all substances we are acquainted with; and the study of the effects of <i>heat</i> and <i>mixture</i>, in order that we may find out their general and subordinate laws.</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Analytical</i>, relating to analysis.</p> <p><i>Investigation</i>, act of searching, or tracing out.</p> <p><i>Subordinate</i>, inferior in nature, dignity or power.</p></div> <p><b>Relate a few more of the advantages obtained by a knowledge of Chemistry.</b></p> <p>Many of the wonderful operations of Nature, and the changes which take place in substances around us, are, by its means, revealed to us. In every manufacture, art, or walk of life, the chemist possesses an advantage over his unskilled neighbor. It is necessary to the farmer and gardener, as it explains the growth of plants, the use of manures, and their proper application: and indispensable to the physician, that he may understand the animal economy, and the <i>effects</i> which certain <i>causes</i> chemically produce; and the nature of animal, vegetable, and mineral poisons. The study is, therefore, an invaluable branch in the education of youth: it is useful, not only in the active, but the <i>moral</i> life, by laying the foundation of an ardent and inquiring mind. Even an everyday walk in the fields can be productive of instruction, by a knowledge of it;&mdash;and let us always remember, that "Knowledge is Power."</p> <div class="blockquot"><p><i>Indispensable</i>, necessary, not to be done without.</p></div> <p><span class="pagenum"><SPAN name="Page_201" id="Page_201"></SPAN>[201]</span></p> <hr style="width: 65%;" /> <h2>
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