Beelingo.com

Music Notation and Terminology

INDEX

 

eh = a as in face; ah = a as in far; ch = ch as in chair; final eh = e as in met.

 

A (ah), 95

A battuta (ah-baht-too'-tah), 95

A capella (cah-pel'-lah), 76

A capriccio (cah-pritch'-eo), 54

Accelerando (aht-cheh-leh-rahn'-do), 54

Accented tones, 20

Accent marks, 20

Accent in measures, 44

Acciaccatura (aht-cheea-cah-too'-ra), 25, 26

Accidentals, 9

Accompagnamento (ahc-com-pahn-yah-men'-to), 95

Acoustics (ah-kow'-stics), def., 131
of auditoriums, 133

Adagietto (ah-dah-jee-et'-to), 50

Adagio (ah-dah'-jee-o), 50

À deux mains (doo-mahng), 42

Ad libitum, 54

Affrettando (ahf-fret-tahn'-do), 54

Agitato (ah-jee-tah'-to), 55

Agréments (ah-greh-mahng), 22

À la or alla (ahl'-lah), 42

Alla breve (breh'-veh), 95

Alla marcia (mar'-chee-ah), 95

Allargando (ahl-lahr-gahn'-do), 53

Alla zingara (tseen-gah'-rah), 95

Allegretto (ahl-leh-gret'-to), 51

Allegrissimo, 52

Allegro (ahl-leh'-gro), 50

Allegro agitato (ah-jee-tah'-to), 52

Allegro appassionata (-ah'-tah), 52

Allegro assai (ahs-sah'-ee), 52

Allegro commodo (kom-mo'-do), 52

Allegro con brio (bree'-o), 52

Allegro con fuoco (foo-o'-ko), 53

Allegro con moto (mo'-to), 53

Allegro con spirito (spee'-ree-to), 53

Allegro di bravura (dee brah-voo'-rah), 53

Allegro di molto (mohl'-to), 53

Allegro furioso (foo-ree-o'-so), 53

Allegro giusto (jew-sto), 53

Allegro ma grazioso (mah grah-tsi-o'-so), 53

Allegro (ma) non tanto (tahn'-to), 53

Allegro (ma) non troppo (trop'-po), 53

Allegro moderato (mod-e-rah'-to), 53

Allegro quasi andante (quah-see ahn-dahn'-teh), 53

Allegro vivace (vee-vah'-cheh), 53

Allemande (al-mahnd), 71

All'unisono (oo-nee-so'-no), 95

All'ottava (ot-tah'-vah), 15

Alt (ahlt), 95

Alto (ahl-to), 95

A mezza voce (met'-zah-vo'-cheh), 42

Amore (ah-mo'-reh), 42, 59

Andante (ahn-dahn'-teh), 50

Andante affettuoso (ahf-fet-too-o'-so), 52

Andante amabile (ah-mah'-bee-leh), 52

Andante cantabile (cahn-tah'-bee-leh), 52

Andante con moto (mo'-to), 52

Andante grazioso (grah-tsi-o'-so), 52

Andante maestoso (mah-es-to'-so), 52

Andante (ma) non troppo (mah non trop'-po), 52

Andante pastorale (pahs-to-rah'-leh), 52

Andante quasi allegro (quah-see ahl-leh'-gro), 52

Andante sostenuto (sos-teh-noo'-to), 52

Animando (ah-nee-mahn'-do), 55

Animato (ah-nee-mah'-to), 55

Animato come sopra (co-meh so'-prah), 55

Andantino (ahn-dahn-tee'-no), 50

Antecedent, 67

Anthem, 76

Anticipation, 93

Antiphony (an-tif'-o-ny), 95

Antithesis (an-tith'-), 67

A piacere (pee-ah-cheh'-reh), 54

Appoggiatura (ap-pod-jea-too'-rah), def., 25

À quatre mains (kahtr-mahng), 95

Arabesque, 95

Aria (ah'-ree-ah), 79

Arioso (ah-ree-o'-so), 95

Arpeggiando (ar-ped-jee-ahn'-do), 21

Arpeggiato (-ah'-to), 21

Arpeggiento (-en'-to), 21

Arpeggio (ar-ped'-jee-o), 21

Art-ballad, 80

Assai (ahs-sah'-ee), 42

A tempo, 54

A tempo primo (pree'-mo), 54

A tempo rubato (roo-bah'-to), 54

Attacca (aht-tah'-kah), 95

Attacca subito (soo'-bee-to), 95

Attacca subito il seguente (eel seg-wen'-teh), 95

Attack, 95


Bagpipe, 95

Ballad, 80

Band, 115

Bar, def. and use, 12
double, 12

Barcarole (bar'-cah-rohl), 95

Baritone, 95

Bass, 95

Bass clarinet, 121

Basso (bahs'-so), 95

Bassoon, 121

Bass staff, 6

Bass tuba, 125

Bass viol, 118

Ben (behn), 42

Ben marcato (mahr-kah'-to), 42

Berceuse (behr-soos'), 95

Binary form, 95

Binary measure, 95

Bis (bees), 96

Bolero (bo-leh'-ro), 71

Bourrée (boo-reh'), 71

Brace, 96

Brass instruments, 116

Brillante (breel-ahn'-teh), 55

Broken chord, 96

Broken octave, 96


Cacophony (kak-of'-o-ny), 96

Cadence, 89

Cadenza, 96

Calando (kah-lahn'-do), 59

Cancel, 3, 8

Cantabile (kahn-tah'-bee-leh), 96

Cantando (kakn-tahn'-do), 96

Canto (kahn'-to), 96

Cantus firmus, 64

Canon, 64

Cantata (kahn-tah'-tah), 77

Carol, 96

Catch, 96

C clef 3, 6

Cello (chel'-lo), 118

Chaconne (shah-con'), 71

Chamber music, 72

Chanterelle (shong-tah-rel'), 117

Chinese scale, 27

Choral, 76

Chords def. and lands, 87
inversions of, 88
common, 87
seventh, 89
dominant seventh, 92

Chromatic, 96

Chromatic scale, 38

Clarinet, 121

Classes of instruments in orchestra, 115

Clavichord, 96

Clefs, 3, 5

Close position, 94

Coda, 70

Coi (co'-ee), 42

Col, 42

Colla, 42

Colla parte (par'-teh), 96

Colla voce (vo'-cheh), 96

Colle, 42

Collo, 42

Coloratura singing, 79, 96

Coll'ottava (ot-tah'-vah), 15

Combination pedals, 115

Come (koh'-meh), 42

Come primo (pree'-mo), 42

Common chords, 87

Compound measure, 45

Compound duple measure, 45

Con, 42

Con alcuna licenza (ahl-koo'-nah lee-chen'-tsah), 59

Con amore (ah-mo'-reh), 42, 59

Con anima (ah'-nee-mah), 55

Con bravura (brah-voo'-rah), 59

Con celerita (che-leh'-ree-tah), 59

Concerto (con-cher'-to), 72

Concert pitch, 138

Con delicato (deh-lee-cah'-to), 59

Con energico (en-er-jee'-ko), 59

Con espressione (es-pres-see-o'-neh), 59

Con forza (fort'-za), 60

Con fuoco (foo-o'-ko), 60

Con grand' espressione (grahnd' es-pres-see-o'-neh), 60

Con grazia (grahts-yah), 60

Con melinconia (or malinconia) (-leen-ko'-ne-eh), 60

Con moto, 55

Con passione (pas-se-o'-neh), 60

Consequent, 67

Consonance, 96

Con spirito (spe'-ree-to), 60

Con tenerezza (teh-neh-ret'-za), 60

Continuous form, 80

Contra, 42

Contra bass tuba, 126

Contra octave, 16

Contralto, 96

Con variazione (vah-ri-ah-tsi-o'-neh), 96

Cornet, 124

Counterpoint, def., 64, 62, 82

Courante (koo-rahnt'), 71

Crescendo (kre-shen'-do), 57

Crescendo al fortissimo, 58

Crescendo ed affrettando (ahf-fret-tahn'-do), 58

Crescendo ed animando poco a poco (ah-ni-mahn'-do), 58

Crescendo e diminuendo (eh de-me-noo-en'-do), 58

Crescendo molto (mohl'-to), 58

Crescendo poco a poco, 58

Crescendo poco a poco sin al fine (seen ahl fee'-neh), 58

Crescendo poi diminuendo (po'-ee dee-mee-noo-en'-do), 58

Crescendo subito (soo'-bee-to), 58

Cross-stroke, 1, 2

Csardas (tsar'-dahs), 71


Da (dah), 42

Da capo (kah'-po), 13

Dal segno (sehn'-yo), 13

Dances, 71

Dash over note, 17, 20

Decrescendo (deh-kreh-shen'-do), 58

Decrescendo al pianissimo (ahl pee-ahn-is'-si-mo), 58

Degrees of staff, 5

Delicato (deh-lee-kah'-to), 60

Descriptive music, 74

Di (dee), 42

Diatonic condition, 7

Diatonic scale, 28

Di bravura (brah-voo'-rah), 42

Diminuendo (dee-mee-noo-en'-do), 58

Di molto (mohl'-to), 42

Direct, 96

Dirge, 97

Discord, 97

Dissonance (dis'), 97

Divisi (di-ve'-ze), 97

Dolce (dohl'-cheh), 60

Dolce e cantabile (eh kahn-tah'-bee-leh), 60

Dolcissimo (dohl-chis'-see-mo), 60

Dolente (do-len'-teh), 60

Dominant, 36

Dominant Seventh, 92

Doloroso (do-lo-ro'-so), 60

Doppio (dop'-pee-o), 42

Doppio movimento (mo-vi-men'-to), 55

Dot—where placed, 3
uses of, 17
with slur or tie, 20
with dash, 20

Double bar, 12

Double bass, 118

Double bassoon, 121

Double flat, 3, 7

Double mordent, 23

Double sharp, 3, 7

Doublet, 20

Duet, 97

Duple measure, 46

Dynamics, 56


E (eh), 42

École (eh'-kole), 97

Ed, 42

Eight-foot stop, 114

Elements of music, 82

Embellishments, 22

English names for notes, 11

English horn, 121

Enharmonic, def., 10

Enharmonic scale, 32

Enharmonic tie, 18

Ensemble (ong-sombl), 42

Equal temperament, 137

E poi la coda (eh-po'-ee), 14

Espressivo (ehs-pres-see'-vo), 60

Et, 42

Etto, 42

Etude, 97

Euphony (yu'-fo-ny), 97

Even measure, 46


Facile (fah-chee'-leh), 97

Fanfare (fahn'-fehr), 97

Fantasia (fahn-tah-ze'-ah), 97

F Clef, 3, 5, 6

Fermata (fehr-mah'-ta), 14, 15

Fiasco (fe-ahs'-ko), 97

Figured bass, 89

Fine (fee'-neh), 13

Five-lined octave, 16

Flat, 3, 7

Flute, 119

Folk-song, 81

Form, def., 62
binary, 95

Forte (for'-teh), 56

Forte piano (pee-ah'-no), 56

Forte possibile (pos-see'-bee-leh), 43

Fortissimo, 56

Fortissimo possibile (pos-see-bee-leh), 56

Fortisissimo, 56

Forzando (for-tsahn'-do), 57

Forzato (for-tsah'-to), 57

Four-foot stop, 114

Four-lined octave, 16

Free imitation, 64

French horn, 123

French pitch designations, 6

Fugue, 66

Fundamental, 135


Gamut (gam'-ut), 97

Gavotte (gah-vot'), 71

G Clef, 3, 5, 6

General pause, 15

German pitch designation, 6

Gigue (zheeg), 71

Giocoso (jee-o-ko'-so), 60

Giojoso (jee-o-yo'-so), 60

Glee, 81

Glissando (glis-sahn'-do), 97

Graces, 22

Grandioso (grahn-dee-o'-so), 60

Grand sonata, 74

Grave (grah'-veh), 50

Grazioso (grah-tsi-o'-so), 60

Great octave, 16

Great staff, 5

Grosse pause (gros-seh pah-oo'-za) or (gros-seh pow-zeh), 15

Gruppetto (groo-pet'-to), 22


Habanera (hah-bah-neh'-rah), 71

Half-step, 83

Harmonic minor scale, 33

Harmonics, 136

Harmonics on violin, 117

Harmony, 82

Harp, 129

Harpsichord, 97

Head of note, 1

Hold, 15

Homophonic style, 63

Hook, 1

Humoresque (hoo-mo-resk'), 97

Hymn to St. John, 37


Idyl, 97

Il (eel), 42

Il basso (bahs'-so), 42

Il più (pee'-oo), 42

Il più forte possibile (pos-see'-bee-leh), 42

Imitation, 64

Imperfect trill, 23

In alt (in ahlt), 97

In altissimo (ahl-tis'-si-mo), 97

Ino (ee'-no), 42

Instrumentation, 97

Instruments, classification of, 112

Intensity of tones, 135

Interlude, 97

Intermediate tones, 38
see "Chromatic," p. 96

International pitch, 138

Interval, def., 83
enharmonic, 10
harmonic, 83
melodic, 83
names of, 83

Inversion, in thematic development, 69

Inversions of chords, 88

Inverted mordent, 23

Inverted turn, 25

Issimo, 42


Kettle-drum, 126

Key, def., 28
signature, 8
enharmonic keys, 10
key-tone, 27, 28
how different from scale, 28


L, 42

La (lah), 42

Lacrimando (lah-kri-mahn'-do), 60

Lacrimoso (lah-kri-mo'-so), 60

Largamente (lar-gah-men'-teh), 42

Largando (lar-gahn'-do), 53

Larghetto (lar-get'-to), 50

Largo, 50

Largo assai (ahs-sah'-ee), 52

Largo di molto (de mohl'-to), 52

Largo ma non troppo (mah non trop'-po), 52

Largo un poco (oon po'-co), 52

Le (leh), 42

Leading tone, 33, 36

Legato (leh-gah'-to), 18, 60

Leger lines, 5

Leggierissimo (led-jah-ris'-si-mo), 60

Leggiero (led-jee'-ro), 60

Lentando (len-tahn'-do), 52

Lentemente (len-tah-men'-teh), 52

Lentissimamente (-men'-teh), 52

Lentissamente (-men'-teh), 52

Lento, 50

Lento a capriccio (ah-cah-preet'-chee-o), 52

Lento assai (ahs-sah'-ee), 52

Lento di molto (de mohl'-to), 52

Libretto (lee-bret'-to), 78

Lied (leed), 80

L'istesso tempo (lis-tes'-so), 42, 55

Loco, 15, 97

Long appoggiatura (ap-pod-jea-too'-rah), 25

Lower tetrachord, 29

Lunga pausa (loong-ah pow'-zeh) or (loon-gah pah-oo'-za), 15

Lunga trillo, 97

Lusingando (loos-in-gahn'-do), 60

Lyric, 98


Madrigal (mad'-ri-gal), 81

Maesta (mah'-es-tah), 60

Maestoso (mah-es-to'-so), 60

Maggiore (mahd-jo'-reh), 98

Main droite (mahng droa), 20

Main gauche (mahng gowsh), 20

Major key, 8

Major scale, def., 29
positions, 30
origin of name, 33

Mancando (mahn-kahn'-do), 59

Mano destra (mah'-no dehs'-trah), 20

Mano sinistra (si-nees'-trah), 20

Marcato il canto (mar-kah'-to eel kahn'-to), 98

Martellando (mar-tel-lahn'-do), 59

Martellato (mar-tel-lah'-to), 59

Marziale (mart-se-ah'-leh), 59

Mass, 77

Mazurka (mah-zoor'-ka), 71

Measure, def., 44
how differs from "bar," 12
how differs from "rhythm," 44
syncopation in, 44
simple and compound, 45
duple or even, 46
triple or perfect, 46
quadruple, 46
sextuple, 46
compound duple, 46
signature, 48
binary, 95

Mediant, 36

Mellifluous (mel-lif'-loo-us), 98

Melodic minor scales, 34

Melody, 82

Melos (meh'-los), 98

Meno (meh'-no), 42

Meno mosso (mos'-so), 53

Mente (men'-teh), 42

Menuet (meh-noo-eh'), 98

Menuetto (meh-noo-et'-to), 98

Messa di voce (mes'-sa dee vo'-cheh), 21

Mesto (mehs'-to), 60

Metronome, 49

Mezza (med'-zah), 42

Mezzo (med'-zo), 42

Mezzo forte (for'-teh), 42, 56

Mezzo piano (pe-ah'-no), 56

Mezzo soprano (so-prah'-no), 98

Mezzo voce (vo'-cheh), 60

Minor key, 8

Minore (me-no'-reh), 98

Minor scale, def., 33
positions, 34

Minuet, 71

Misterioso (mis-teh-ri-o'-so), 60

Moderato (mod-e-rah'-to), 51

Modulation, def., 92
enharmonic, 10

Molto (mohl'-to), 42

Molto crescendo (kre-shen'-do), 42

Monophonic style, 63, 67

Mordent, 22, 23

Morendo (mo-ren'-do), 59

Moriente (mo-ri-en'-teh), 59

Motet (mo-tet'), 76

Movable C Clef, 6

Mute, 117


Natural, 3, 8

Natural condition of staff-degrees, 8

Nel, 42

Nel battere (baht-teh'-reh), 42

Nella, 42

Neumae (neoo'-mee), 104

Nocturne, 98

Non (non), 42

Non tanto (tahn'-to), 42

Non tanto allegro (ahl-leh'-gro), 53

Non troppo allegro (trop'-po), 53

Notation, history of music, 101

Notes, def., 10
kinds of, 11
English names for, 11
dotted, 17
staccato, 17
irregular note-groups, 19
parts of, 1
how made, 1

Nuance (noo-angs), 98


Obbligato (ob-blee-gah'-to), 98

Oboe (o'-bo), 121

Octave, def., 36

Octaves, names of, 16

Offertory, 98

One-lined octave, 16

Open position, 94

Opera, 78

Opus, 98

Oratorio, 77

Orchestra, 115

Orchestration, 98

Organ, reed, 113
pipe, 114
point, 98

Original minor scale, 33

Origin of scale, 28

Ossia (os'-see-ah), 42, 98

Ossia più facile (pe-oo' fah-chee'-leh), 42

Overtones, 136

Overture, 98


Parlando (par-lahn'-do), 60

Part song, 81

Pastorale (pas-to-rah'-leh), 60

Pedal point, 93

Pentatonic scale, 27

Per (pehr), 42

Percussion instruments, 116

Perdendo (pehr-den'-do), 59

Perdendosi (pehr-den-do'-see), 59

Perfect measure, 46

Perfect trill, 23

Per il violino (eel ve-o-le'-no), 42

Period, 67

Pesante (peh-sahn'-teh), 55

Peu (peuh), 42

Phrase, 67

Phrase mark, 18

Pianissimo (pee-ahn-is'-si-mo), 56

Pianissimo possibile (pos-see'-bee'-leh), 56

Pianisissimo (pee-ahn-is-is'-si-mo), 56

Piano (pee-ah'-no), 56

Piano assai (ahs-sah'-ee), 56

Piano, description of, 112

Piccolo (pik'-ko-lo), 119

Pipe organ, 114

Pitch, def., 134
pitch names, 6
standards of, 137
concert pitch, 138
international pitch, 138

Più (pe-oo'), 42

Più allegro (ahl-leh'-gro), 54

Più forte (for'-teh), 42

Più lento, 53

Più mosso (mos'-so), 54

Più tosto (tos'-to), 54

Pizzicato (pits-e-kah'-to), 99, 117

Pochetto (po-ket'-to), see ino, 42

Poco, 43

Poco a poco animando (ah-nee-mahn'-do), 54

Poi (po' ee), 42

Polacca (po-lahk'-kah), 99

Polka, 69

Polonaise (pol-o-nez'), 71, 99

Polyphonic style, 64

Pomposo (pom-po'-so), 60

Portamento (por'-tah-men'-to), 20

Position, open and close, 94

Possibile (pos-see'-bee-leh), 43

Postlude, 99

Prall trill, 22

Precipitoso (preh-che-pi-to'-so), 60

Prelude, 99

Prestissimo (pres-tis'-see-mo), 51

Prestissimo possibile (pos-see'-bee-leh), 51

Presto, 51

Presto assai (ahs-sah'-ee), 53

Presto (ma) non troppo (mah non trop'-po), 53

Prière (pre-ehr'), 99

Primary forms, 68

Primitive minor scale, 33

Program music, 74

Pure music, 74

Pure scale, 40


Quadruple measure, 46

Quality, 136

Quartet, 72

Quasi (quah'-see), 43

Quintole (kwin'-to-leh), 99

Quintolet, 20

Quintuplet, 20, 99


Raised sixth, 34

Rallentando (rahl-len-tahn'-do), 53

Rapidamente (rah-pid-a-men'-teh), 55

Rate of speed, of sound, 132

Recitative (res-i-tah-teev'), 78

Recitativo (reh-chee-ta-tee'-vo), 60

Reed organ, 113

Relative minor, 8, 35

Religioso (reh-lee-jo'-so), 99

Repetition and contrast, 62, 70

Requiem (re'-kwi-em), 99

Rests, def., 10
rules for making, 2
kinds of, 11
peculiar use of, 11
several measures of, 14

Retardation, 93

Rhapsody, 99

Rhythm, def., 82
element of music, 82
how differs from "measure," 44
correct use of word, 48

Rhythmic augmentation, 69

Rhythmic diminution, 69

Rhythmic figures, 44

Ribattuta (re-baht-too'-tah), 99

Rigaudon (rig'-o-don), 71

Rinforzando (rin-for-tsahn'-do), 57

Rinforzato (rin-for-tsah'-to), 57

Risoluto (ree-so-loo'-to), 60

Ritardando (ree-tar-dahn'-do), 53

Ritenente (ree-ten-en'-teh), 53

Ritenuto (ree-ten-oo'-to), 53

Ritornelle (ree-tor-nell'), 99

Ritornello (ree-tor-nel'-lo), 99

Rondo, 70, 71

Rules:
For writing music, 1, 2
For turning stems, 1, 2
For altered staff degrees, 10
For embellishments, 22-26
For repeats, 13, 14
For writing chromatic scale, 38


Sans (sahng), 43

Sans pedales (peh-da-leh), 43

Sarabande (sar-ah-bahn'-deh), 71

Sarrusophone (sar-reoos-o-fohn'), 123

Saxhorn, p. 125 (footnote)

Saxophone, 121

Scales, def., 27
origin, 28
how different from keys, 28
positions of:
major, 30
minor, 34
chromatic, 38
tones of, called, 5, 36, 37
Chinese, 27
Scotch, 27

Scherzando (skehr-tsahn'-do), 60

Scherzo (skehr'-tso), 71, 72

Scherzoso (skehr-tzo'-so), 60

School-round, 66

Schottische (shot'-tish), 99

Score, 99

Scotch scale, 27

Sec (sek), 99

Secco (sek'-ko), 99

Section, 67

Segue (sehg'-weh), 14

Semplice (sem-plee'-cheh), 60

Sempre (sem'-preh), 43

Sempre forte (for'-teh), 43

Sempre lento malinconico assai (mah-leen-ko'-ni-ko ahs-sah'-ee), 55

Sempre marcatissimo (mar-kah-tis'-si-mo), 60

Sentimento (sen-tee-men'-to), 60

Senza (sen-tza), 42

Senza accompagnamento (ahc-com-pahn-yah-men'-toh), 42

Senza repetizione (reh-peh-titz-e-o'-neh), 14, 99

Senza replica (reh'-ple-kah), 99

Septimole, 20

Septolet, 20

Sequence, 91

Serenade, 99

Serenata (seh-re-nah'-tah), 99

Seventh chord, 89

Sextet, 99

Sextolet, 20

Sextuple measure, 46

Sextuplet, 20, 100

Sforzando (sfortz-ahn'-do), 57

Sforzato (sfortz-ah'-to), 57

Shake, 22

Sharp, 3, 7

Short appoggiatura (ap-pod-jea-too-rah), 25

Simile (see'-mee-leh), 14, 100

Similiter (see-mil'-i-ter), 100

Simple measure, 45

Simple tone, 137

Sin (seen), 43

Sin al fine (ahl-fee'-neh), 14

Sino (see'-no), 43

Sixteen-foot stop, 114

Sixty-four-foot stop, 114

Slentando (slen-tahn'-do), 53

Slur, 18

Small octave, 16

Smorzando (smor-tzahn'-do), 59

Solenne (so-len'-neh), 59

Solfège (sul-fezh'), 100

Solfeggio (sol-fed'-jo), 100

Solmization, 100

Solo, 43

Sonata (so-nah'-tah), 71

Sonata allegro (ahl-leh'-gro), 73

Sonata form, 73

Sonatina (so-na-tee'-nah), 74

Song form, 68

Sopra (so'-prah), 100

Soprano (so-prah'-no), 100

Sordino (sor-dee'-no), 117

Sostenuto (sos-teh-noo'-to), 100

Sotto (sot'-to), 100

Sotto voce (vo'-cheh), 59

Sound, App. C, 131
Production of, 131
Transmission of, 131
Rate of travel of, 131
Intensification of, 133
Reflection of, 133
Classification of, 133

Spiritoso (spee-ree-to'-so), 60

Staccatissimo (stahk-kah-tis'-si-mo), 17

Staccato (stahk-kah'-to), 17, 20, 100

Staff, 5

Staff degrees, 5

Standards of pitch, 137

Stems, 1

Step, half and whole, 83

Strepitoso (streh-pee-to'-so), 61

Stretto (stret'-to), 54

Strict imitation, 64

Stringed instruments, 115

Stringendo (strin-jen'-do), 54

Stroking notes, 2

Strophe form (stro'-feh), 80

Styles, kinds of, 63
how differ from forms, 62

Sub, 43

Sub-dominant, 36

Subject, 64

Subito (soo-bee'-to), 100

Sub-mediant, 36

Sub-octave, 16

Suite (sweet), 70

Super-dominant, 36

Super-tonic, 36

Suspension, 92

Swell-box, 114

Syllables for sight-singing, 37

Symphonic poem, 75

Symphony, def., 73

Syncopation, 44


Tail of note, 1

Takt pausa (tahkt pow'-zeh or pah-oo'-za), 11

Tanto (tahn'-to), 43

Tarantella (tah-rahn-tel'-lah), 71

Tempered scales, 137

Tempo, 48-50

Tempo commodo (ko-mo'-do), 55

Tempo di marcia (de mar'-chee-ah), 55

Tempo di menuetto (meh-noo-et'-to), 55

Tempo di valso (vahl'-so), 55

Tempo giusto (jew-sto), 54

Tempo ordinario (or-dee-nah'-ree-o), 55

Tempo primo (pree'-mo), 54

Tempo rubato (roo-bah'-to), 54

Tenor, 100

Tenuto (teh-noo'-to), 55, 100

Terminology Reforms, App. D, p. 139

Tetrachords in scales, 29

Thematic development, 69

Theme, 69

Theme and variations, 69

Thesis, 67

Thirty-two-foot stop, 114

Thorough-bass, 89

Three-lined octave, 16

Through-composed form, 80

Tie, 18

Timbre (tambr), 82

Time, wrong uses of word, 48

Toccata (tok-kah'-tah), 100

Tonality scale, 27, 28, 38

Tone, how represented, 10
ornamental tone, 22
key-tone, 27
of resolution, 93

Tone-poem, 75

Tonic, 36

Tonic minor, 36

Tranquillo (trahn-quil'-lo), 61

Transposition, 94

Tre (treh), 43

Treble staff, 6

Tre corde (kor'-deh), 43, 59

Très (treh), 43

Très lentement (lahng-te-mahng), 52

Très vivement (ve'-veh-mahng), 42

Triad, def., 87, 88

Trill, 22

Trio, 72

Triple measure, 46

Triplet, 19, 100

Tristamente (tris-tah-men'-teh), 61

Trombone, 125

Troppo (trop'-po), 43

Trumpet, 124

Tuba, 125

Turn, 24, 25

Tutte le corde (toot'-teh leh kor'-deh), 59

Tutti (toot'-tee), 100

Two-foot stop, 114

Two-lined octave, 16


Un (oon), 43

Una (oo'-nah), 43

Una corda, 43, 59

Uno (oo'-no), 43

Un peu (oon peuh), 43

Un peu crescendo (kre-shen'-do), 43

Un poco animate (ah-ni-mah-'to), 54

Untempered scale, 40

Upper partials, 136

Upper tetrachord, 29


Veloce (veh-lo'-cheh), 55

Viola (vee-o'-lah), 117

Violin, 117

Violoncello (vee-o-lohn-chel'-lo), 118

Vivo (vee'-vo), 51

Vivace (vee-vah'-cheh), 51

Vivacissimo (vee-vah-chis'-see-mo), 51

Vocal music, 76

Volante (vo-lahn'-teh), 55


Waltz, 68

Whole-step, 83

Whole-step scale, 28, 40

Wood-wind instruments, 115


FOOTNOTES

[1] It should be noted at the outset that this statement regarding the down-turned stem on the left side of the note-head, and also a number of similar principles here cited, refer more specifically to music as it appears on the printed page. In the case of hand-copied music the down-turned stem appears on the right side of the note, thus . This is done because of greater facility in writing, and for the same reason other slight modifications of the notation here recommended may sometimes be encountered. In dealing with children it is best usually to follow as closely as possible the principles according to which printed music is notated, in order to avoid those non-satisfying and often embarrassing explanations of differences which will otherwise be unavoidable.

[2] An exception to this rule occurs in the case of notes of unequal value stroked together, when the hook appears on the left side, thus .

[3] It is to be hoped that the figure for the double-flat suggested by Mattheson (who also suggested the St. Andrew's cross () for the double-sharp) may some time be readopted. This figure was the Greek letter B, made thus, β, and its use would make our notation one degree more uniform than it is at present.

[4] The word leger is derived from the French word LÉGER, meaning light, and this use of the word refers to the fact that the leger lines, being added by hand, are lighter—i.e., less solid in color—than the printed lines of the staff itself.

[5] The word clef is derived from CLAVIS—a key—the reference being to the fact that the clef unlocks or makes clear the meaning of the staff, as a key to a puzzle enables us to solve the puzzle.

[6] The Germans use the same pitch designations as we do with two exceptions, viz., our B is called by them H, and our B is called B. The scale of C therefore reads: C, D, E, F, G, A, H, C; the scale of F reads F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F. The signatures are in all cases written exactly as we write them.

In France and Italy where the "fixed DO" system is in vogue, pitches are usually referred to by the syllable names; e.g., C is referred to as DO (or UT), D as RE, etc.

[7] The expression "diatonic condition" as here used refers to the staff after the signature has been placed upon it, in other words after the staff has been prepared to represent the pitches of the diatonic scale.

[8] It has already been noted (, Note) that in the German scale our b-flat is called b, and our b is called H. From this difference in terminology has grown up the custom of using the H (now made ) to show that any staff-degree is in natural condition, i.e., not sharped or flatted.

[9] The word sin is a contraction of the Italian word sino, meaning "as far as" or "until"; in the term given above (Sec. 39) it is really superfluous as the word al includes in itself both preposition and article, meaning "to the."

[10] For definition of enharmonic see , Sec. 27.

[11] Elson—Dictionary of Music, article mordent.

[12] In organ music the acciaccatura is still taken to mean that the embellishing tone and the melody tone are to be sounded together, the former being then instantly released, while the latter is held to its full time-value.

[13] If strictly logical terminology is to be insisted upon the whole-tone scale should be called the "whole-step" scale.

[14] The word tetrachord means literally "four strings" and refers to the primitive instrument, the four strings of which were so tuned that the lowest and the highest tones produced were a perfect fourth apart. With the Greeks the tetrachord was the unit of analysis as the octave is with us to-day, and all Greek scales are capable of division into two tetrachords, the arrangement of the intervals between the tones in each tetrachord differentiating one scale from another, but the tetrachords themselves always consisting of groups of four tones, the highest being a perfect fourth above the lowest.

[15] The step-and-a-half (augmented second) is "unmelodic" because it is the same size as a minor third and the mind finds it difficult to take in as a second (notes representing it being on adjacent staff-degrees) an interval of the same size as a third.

[16] These syllables are said to have been derived originally from the initial syllables of the "Hymn to Saint John," the music of which was a typical Gregorian chant. The application of these syllables to the scale tones will be made clear by reference to this hymn as given below. It will be observed that this hymn provided syllables only for the six tones of the hexachord then recognized; when the octave scale was adopted (early in the sixteenth century) the initial letters of the last line (s and i) were combined into a syllable for the seventh tone.

[Listen]

[17] A considerable number of teachers (particularly those who did not learn to sing by syllable in childhood) object to calling the tonic of the minor scale la, insisting that both major and minor tonic should be called do. According to this plan the syllables used in singing the harmonic minor scale would be: DO, RE, ME, FA, SOL, LE, TI, DO.

There is no particular basis for this theory, for although all scales must of course begin with the key-tone or tonic, this tonic may be referred to by any syllable which will serve as a basis for an association process enabling one to feel the force of the tone as a closing point—a home tone. Thus in the Dorian mode the tonic would be RE, in the Phrygian, MI, etc.

[18] The student should differentiate between the so-called "tonality" scales like the major and minor, the tones of which are actually used as a basis for "key-feeling" with the familiar experience of coming home to the tonic after a melodic or harmonic excursion, and on the other hand the purely artificial and mechanical construction of the chromatic scale.

[19] Many other enharmonic notations are possible, altho the "five pairs of tones" above referred to are the most common. Thus E and F are enharmonically the same, as are also C and B, C and B[double-sharp], etc.

[20] The word chromatic means literally colored and was first applied to the intermediate tones because by using them the singer could get smoother and more diversely-shaded progressions, i.e., could get more color than by using only the diatonic tones. Composers were not long discovering the peculiar value of these additional tones and soon found that these same tones were exceedingly valuable also in modulating, hence the two uses of intermediate tones at the present time—first, to embellish a melody; second, to modulate to another key.

[21] Stanford—Musical Composition (1911) p. 17.

[22] Recent tests in Germany seem to prove conclusively that the tempered scale is the scale ordinarily employed by both vocalists and players on stringed instruments, and that the ideal of and agitation for a pure (i.e., untempered) scale in vocal and in string music is somewhat of a myth.

[23] Pearse—Rudiments of Musical Knowledge, p. 37.

[24] For explanation of terminology, see , Sec. 106.

[25] To test the accuracy of a metronome, set the weight at 60 and see if it beats seconds. If it gives more than 62 or 63 or less than 57 or 58 clicks per minute it will not be of much service in giving correct tempi and should be taken to a jeweller to be regulated.

[26] Largo, larghetto, etc., are derivatives of the Latin word largus, meaning large, broad.

[27] Adagio means literally at ease.

[28] There has been some difference of opinion as to which of these two terms indicates the more rapid tempo: an analysis tells us that if allegro means quick, and if etto is the diminutive ending, then allegretto means a little quick—i.e., slower than allegro. These two terms are, however, so closely allied in meaning that a dispute over the matter is a mere waste of breath.

[29] Bussler—Elements of Notation and Harmony, p. 76.

[30] Both moriente and morendo mean literally—dying.

[31] From smorzare (It.)—to extinguish.

[32] Polyphonic music flourished from 1000 A.D. to about 1750 A.D., the culmination of the polyphonic period being reached in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750). Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and the later writers have used the monophonic style more than the polyphonic, although a combination of the two is often found, as e.g., in the later works of Beethoven.

[33] There is a very pronounced disagreement among theorists as to what terms are to be used in referring to certain forms and parts of forms and it seems impossible to make a compromise that will satisfy even a reasonable number. In order to make the material in this chapter consistent with itself therefore it has been thought best by the author to follow the terminology of some single recognized work on form, and the general plan of monophonic form here given is therefore that of the volume called Musical Form, by Bussler-Cornell.

[34] A liturgy is a prescribed form or method of conducting a religious service, and the parts sung in such a service (as e.g., the holy communion, baptism, etc.), are referred to as the musical liturgy.

[35] It should be understood that this statement refers to the service called "the high mass" only, there being no music at all in connection with the so-called "low mass."

[36] Many theorists (including Durand in his monumental "Treatise on Harmony") consider the V—I cadence to be the only one which may legitimately be called perfect, but the majority of writers seem to take the view that either authentic or plagal cadence may be either perfect or imperfect, depending upon the soprano tone, as noted above.

[37] Elson—Music Dictionary, article, "Notation."

[38] Goddard—The Rise of Music, p. 177.

[39] Williams in Grove's Dictionary, article, "Notation."

[40] The tonic-sol-fa system represents an attempt to invent a simpler notation to be used by beginners, (especially in the lower grades of the public schools) and by singers in choral societies who have never learned to interpret staff notation and who therefore find some simpler scheme of notation necessary if they are to read music at all.

In this system the syllables do, re, mi, etc., (in phonetic spelling) are used, the tone being arrived at in each case, first by means of a firmly established sense of tonality, and second by associating each diatonic tone with some universally felt emotional feeling: thus do is referred to as the strong tone, mi as the calm one, and la as the sad tone, great emphasis being placed upon do as the center of the major tonality, and upon la as the center of the minor. The system is thus seen to have one advantage over staff notation, viz.: that in presenting it the teacher is compelled to begin with a presentation of actual tones, while in many cases the teacher of staff notation begins by presenting facts regarding the staff and other symbols before the pupil knows anything about tone and rhythm as such.

The symbol for each diatonic tone is the initial letter of the syllable (i.e., d for do, r for re, etc.), the key being indicated by a letter at the beginning of the composition. The duration-value of tones is indicated by a system of bars, dots, and spaces, the bar being used to indicate the strongest pulse of each measure (as in staff notation) the beats being shown by the mark: a dash indicating the continuation of the same tone through another beat. If a beat has two tones this is indicated by writing the two initial letters representing them with a . between them. A modulation is indicated by giving the new key letter and by printing the syllable-initials from the standpoint of both the old and the new do-position. The figure ' above and to the right of the letter indicates the tone in the octave above, while the same figure below and to the right indicates the octave below. A blank space indicates a rest. The tune of My Country, 'Tis of Thee, as printed in tonic sol-fa notation below will make these points clear.

Key F

| d :d :r | t1 :-.d :r | m :m :f | m :-.r :d | r :d :t1 | d :— :— |
| s :s :s | s :-.f :m | f :f :f | f :-.m :r | m :f.m :r.d | m :-.f :s |
| l.f :m :r | d :— :— |

The advantages of the system are (1) the strong sense of key-feeling aroused and the ease with which modulations are felt; and (2) the fact that it is necessary to learn to sing in but one key, thus making sight-singing a much simpler matter, and transposition the easiest process imaginable. But these are advantages from the standpoint of the vocalist (producing but one tone at a time) only, and do not apply to instrumental music. The scheme will therefore probably be always restricted to vocal music and will hardly come into very extensive use even in this field, for the teacher of music is finding it perfectly possible to improve methods of presentation to such an extent that learning to sing from the staff becomes a very simple matter even to the young child. And even though this were not true, the tonic-sol-fa will always be hampered by the fact that since all letters are printed in a straight horizontal line the ear does not have the assistance of the eye in appreciating the rise and fall of melody, as is the case in staff notation.

[41] The ranges noted in connection with these descriptions of instruments are ordinarily the practical orchestral or band ranges rather than those which are possible in solo performance.

[42] The saxhorn was invented about 1840 by Adolphe Sax, a Frenchman. The saxophone is the invention of the same man.

[43] Floyd S. Muckey—"Vocal Terminology," The Musician, May, 1912, p. 337.

[44] Note:—Not "space below the staff" or "space above the staff."


1 of 2
2 of 2