Complete Book of Cheese, The


The A-B-Z of Cheese

Each cheese is listed by its name and country of origin, with any further information available. Unless otherwise indicated, the cheese is made of cow's milk.



Soft; creamy mellow.

Bohemia (Made near Carlsbad)

Hard; sheep; distinctive, with a savory smack all its own.

Absinthe see Petafina.

Acidophilus see Saint-Ivel.


November to May—winter-made and eaten.

Affiné, Carré see Ancien Impérial.

Affumicata, Mozzarella see Mozzarella.

After-dinner cheeses see Chapter 8.

Agricultural school cheeses see College-educated.

Aiguilles, Fromage d'
Alpine France

Named "Cheese of the Needles" from the sharp Alpine peaks of the district where it is made.

Aizy, Cendrée d' see Cendrée.

Ajacilo, Ajaccio

Semihard; piquant; nut-flavor. Named after the chief city of French Corsica where a cheese-lover, Napoleon, was born.

à la Crème see Fromage, Fromage Blanc, Chevretons.

à la Main see Vacherin.

à la Pie see Fromage.

à la Rachette see Bagnes.

Northern Italy

Semihard; made of both goat and cow milk; white, mellow, pleasant-tasting table cheese.


Rich with the flavor of cuds of green herbs chewed into creamy milk that makes tasty curds. Made in the fertile Swiss Valley of Albula whose proud name it bears.

Channel Islands

The French, who are fond of this special product of the very special breed of cattle named after the Channel Island of Alderney, translate it phonetically—Fromage d'Aurigny.


Called in full Queijo de Alemtejo, cheese of Alemtejo, in the same way that so many French cheeses carry along the fromage title. Soft; sheep and sometimes goat or cow; in cylinders of three sizes, weighing respectively about two ounces, one pound, and four pounds. The smaller sizes are the ones most often made with mixed goat and sheep milk. The method of curdling without the usual animal rennet is interesting and unusual. The milk is warmed and curdled with vegetable rennet made from the flowers of a local thistle, or cardoon, which is used in two other Portuguese cheeses—Queijo da Cardiga and Queijo da Serra da Estrella—and probably in many others not known beyond their locale. In France la Caillebotte is distinguished for being clabbered with chardonnette, wild artichoke seed. In Portugal, where there isn't so much separating of the sheep from the goats, it takes several weeks for Alemtejos to ripen, depending on the lactic content and difference in sizes.

Alfalfa see Sage.

Alise Saint-Reine

Soft; summer-made.

Allgäuer Bergkäse, Allgäuer Rundkäse, or Allgäuer Emmentaler

Hard; Emmentaler type. The small district of Allgäu names a mountain of cheeses almost as fabulous as our "Rock-candy Mountain." There are two principal kinds, vintage Allgäuer Bergkäse and soft Allgäuer Rahmkäse, described below. This celebrated cheese section runs through rich pasture lands right down and into the Swiss Valley of the Emme that gives the name Emmentaler to one of the world's greatest. So it is no wonder that Allgäuer Bergkäse can compete with the best Swiss. Before the Russian revolution, in fact, all vintage cheeses of Allgäu were bought up by wealthy Russian noblemen and kept in their home caves in separate compartments for each year, as far back as the early 1900's. As with fine vintage wines, the price of the great years went up steadily. Such cheeses were shipped to their Russian owners only when the chief cheese-pluggers of Allgäu found they had reached their prime.

Allgäuer Rahmkäse

Full cream, similar to Romadur and Limburger, but milder than both. This sets a high grade for similar cheeses made in the Bavarian mountains, in monasteries such as Andechs. It goes exquisitely with the rich dark Bavarian beer. Some of it is as slippery as the stronger, smellier Bierkäse, or the old-time Slipcote of England. Like so many North Europeans, it is often flavored with caraway. Although entirely different from its big brother, vintage Bergkäse, Rahmkäse can stand proudly at its side as one of the finest cheeses in Germany.

Alpe see Fiore di Alpe.

Al Pepe

Hard and peppery, like its name. Similar to Pepato (see).


Similar to Bel Paese.


A smoked cheese that tastes, smells and inhales like whatever fish it was smoked with. The French Alps has a different Alpestre; Italy spells hers Alpestro.

Alpestre, Alpin, or Fromage de Briançon

Hard; goat; dry; small; lightly salted. Made at Briançon and Gap.


Semisoft; goat; dry; lightly salted.

Alpin or Clérimbert
Alpine France

The milk is coagulated with rennet at 80° F. in two hours. The curd is dipped into molds three to four inches in diameter and two and a half inches in height, allowed to drain, turned several times for one day only, then salted and ripened one to two weeks.

Altenburg, or Altenburger Ziegenkäse

Soft; goat; small and flat—one to two inches thick, eight inches in diameter, weight two pounds.

Alt Kuhkäse Old Cow Cheese

Hard; well-aged, as its simple name suggests.

Altsohl see Brinza.

Ambert, or Fourme d'Ambert
Limagne, Auvergne, France

A kind of Cheddar made from November to May and belonging to the Cantal—Fourme-La Tome tribe.

American, American Cheddar

Described under their home states and distinctive names are a dozen fine American Cheddars, such as Coon, Wiscon sin, Herkimer County and Tillamook, to name only a few. They come in as many different shapes, with traditional names such as Daisies, Flats, Longhorns, Midgets, Picnics, Prints and Twins. The ones simply called Cheddars weigh about sixty pounds. All are made and pressed and ripened in about the same way, although they differ greatly in flavor and quality. They are ripened anywhere from two months to two years and become sharper, richer and more flavorsome, as well as more expensive, with the passing of time. See Cheddar states and Cheddar types in Chapter 4.

Americano Romano

Hard; brittle; sharp.

Béarn, France

Winter cheese, October to May.


Hard; sharp.

Anchovy Links

American processed cheese that can be mixed up with anchovies or any fish from whitebait to whale, made like a sausage and sold in handy links.

Ancien Impérial
Normandy, France

Soft; fresh cream; white, mellow and creamy like Neufchâtel and made in the same way. Tiny bricks packaged in tin foil, two inches square, one-half inch thick, weighing three ounces. Eaten both fresh and when ripe. It is also called Carré and has separate names for the new and the old: (a) Petit Carré when newly made; (b) Carré Affiné, when it has reached a ripe old age, which doesn't take long—about the same time as Neufchâtel.

Ancona see Pecorino.


A cow's-milker made in the Andes near Mérida. It is formed into rough cubes and wrapped in the pungent, aromatic leaves of Frailejón Lanudo (Espeletia Schultzii) which imparts to it a characteristic flavor. (Description given in Buen Provecho! by Dorothy Kamen-Kaye.)


A lusty Allgäuer type. Monk-made on the monastery hill at Andechs on Ammersee. A superb snack with equally monkish dark beer, black bread and blacker radishes, served by the brothers in dark brown robes.


Semihard; nut-flavored; named after its place of origin.

Switzerland, Bavaria and Baden

Semisoft Emmentaler type made in a small twenty-pound wheel—a pony-cart wheel in comparison to the big Swiss. There are two qualities: (a) Common, made of skim milk and cured in brine for a year; (b) Festive, full milk, steeped in brine with wine, plus white wine lees and pepper. The only cheese we know of that is ripened with lees of wine.


Semisoft; sour milk; nutlike flavor. It's an appetizer that lives up to its name, eaten fresh on the spot, from the loose bottom pans in which it is made.


Sour buttermilk, similar to Primula, with caraway seeds added for snap. Imitated in U.S.A.

Apple U.S.A.

A small New York State Cheddar put up in the form of a red-cheeked apple for New York City trade. Inspired by the pear-shaped Provolone and Baby Gouda, no doubt.


Semihard; sour milk; yellow; mellow and creamy. Made in mountains between Bohemia and Silesia.


Argentina is specially noted for fine reproductions of classical Italian hard-grating cheeses such as Parmesan and Romano, rich and fruity because of the lush pampas-grass feeding.

Western Caucasus

Soft; whole sour sheep milk; a hand cheese made by stirring cold, sour buttermilk or whey into heated milk, pressing in forms and ripening in a warm place. Similar to Hand cheese.

Arnauten see Travnik.


Water-buffalo milk.

Arras, Coeurs d' see Coeurs.

Champagne, France

Made only in winter, November to May. Since gourmet products of the same province often have a special affinity, Arrigny and champagne are specially well suited to one another.

Artichoke, Cardoon or Thistle for Rennet see Caillebotte.

Artificial Dessert Cheese

In the lavish days of olde England Artificial Dessert Cheese was made by mixing one quart of cream with two of milk and spiking it with powdered cinnamon, nutmeg and mace. Four beaten eggs were then stirred in with one-half cup of white vinegar and the mixture boiled to a curd. It was then poured into a cheesecloth and hung up to drain six to eight hours. When taken out of the cloth it was further flavored with rose water, sweetened with castor sugar, left to ripen for an hour or two and finally served up with more cream.

Asadero, or Oaxaca
Jalisco and Oaxaca, Mexico

White; whole-milk. Curd is heated, and hot curd is cut and braided or kneaded into loaves from eight ounces to eleven pounds in weight Asadero means "suitable for roasting."

Corsica, France

Made only in the winter season, October to May.

Asiago I, II and III
Vicenza, Italy

Sometimes classed as medium and mild, depending mostly on age. Loaves weigh about eighteen pounds each and look like American Cheddar but have a taste all their own.

I. Mild, nutty and sharp, used for table slicing and eating.

II. Medium, semihard and tangy, also used for slicing until nine months old.

III. Hard, old, dry, sharp, brittle. When over nine months old, it's fine for grating.

Asin, or Water cheese
Northern Italy

Sour-milk; washed-curd; whitish; soft; buttery. Made mostly in spring and eaten in summer and autumn. Dessert cheese, frequently eaten with honey and fruit.

Au Cumin
see Münster.

Au Fenouil
see Tome de Savoie.

Au Foin and de Foin

A style of ripening "on the hay." See Pithiviers au Foin and Fromage de Foin.

Valée d'Auge, Normandy, France

Soft; tangy; piquant Pont l'Evêque type.

d'Auray see Sainte-Anne.

Aurigny, Fromage d' see Alderney.

Aurillac see Bleu d'Auvergne.

Aurore and Triple Aurore
Normandy, France

Made and eaten all year.

Australian and New Zealand
Australia and New Zealand

Enough cheese is produced for local consumption, chiefly Cheddar; some Gruyère, but unfortunately mostly processed.

Nivernais, France

Produced and eaten all year. Fromage de Vache is another name for it and this is of special interest in a province where the chief competitors are made of goat's milk.

Auvergne, Bleu d' see Bleu.

Au Vin Blanc, Confits see Epoisses.

Avesnes, Boulette d' see Boulette.

Aydes, les
Orléanais, France

Not eaten during July, August or September. Season, October to June.

Azeitão, Queijo do

Soft, sheep, sapid and extremely oily as the superlative ão implies. There are no finer, fatter cheeses in the world than those made of rich sheep milk in the mountains of Portugal and named for them.


Soft; mellow, zestful and as oily as it is named.

Azuldoch Mountain

Mild and mellow mountain product.

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