<div id="d0e1838" class="div1"><span class="pagenum">
</span><h2 class="label">Chapter VI</h2>
<p>Thy will be done on earth.</p>
<p>While our characters are deep in slumber or busy with their breakfasts, let us turn our attention to Capitan Tiago. We have
never had the honor of being his guest, so it is neither our right nor our duty to pass him by slightingly, even under the
stress of important events.
<p>Low in stature, with a clear complexion, a corpulent figure and a full face, thanks to the liberal supply of fat which according
to his admirers was the gift of Heaven and which his enemies averred was the blood of the poor, Capitan Tiago appeared to
be younger than he really was; he might have been thought between thirty and thirty-five years of age. At the time of our
story his countenance always wore a sanctified look; his little round head, covered with ebony-black hair cut long in front
and short behind, was reputed to contain many things of weight; his eyes, small but with no Chinese slant, never varied in
expression; his nose was slender and not at all inclined to flatness; and if his mouth had not been disfigured by the immoderate
use of tobacco and buyo, which, when chewed and gathered in one cheek, marred the symmetry of his features, we would say that
he might properly have considered himself a handsome man and have passed for such. Yet in spite of this bad habit he kept
marvelously white both his natural teeth and also the two which the dentist furnished him at twelve pesos each.
<p>He was considered one of the richest landlords in Binondo and a planter of some importance by reason of his <SPAN id="d0e1852"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e1852">37</SPAN>]</span>estates in Pampanga and Laguna, principally in the town of San Diego, the income from which increased with each year. San
Diego, on account of its agreeable baths, its famous cockpit, and his cherished memories of the place, was his favorite town,
so that he spent at least two months of the year there. His holdings of real estate in the city were large, and it is superfluous
to state that the opium monopoly controlled by him and a Chinese brought in large profits. They also had the lucrative contract
of feeding the prisoners in Bilibid and furnished zacate to many of the stateliest establishments in Manila u through the
medium of contracts, of course. Standing well with all the authorities, clever, cunning, and even bold in speculating upon
the wants of others, he was the only formidable rival of a certain Perez in the matter of the farming-out of revenues and
the sale of offices and appointments, which the Philippine government always confides to private persons. Thus, at the time
of the events here narrated, Capitan Tiago was a happy man in so far as it is possible for a narrow-brained individual to
be happy in such a land: he was rich, and at peace with God, the government, and men.
<p>That he was at peace with God was beyond doubt,—almost like religion itself. There is no need to be on bad terms with the
good God when one is prosperous on earth, when one has never had any direct dealings with Him and has never lent Him any money.
Capitan Tiago himself had never offered any prayers to Him, even in his greatest difficulties, for he was rich and his gold
prayed for him. For masses and supplications high and powerful priests had been created; for novenas and rosaries God in His
infinite bounty had created the poor for the service of the rich—the poor who for a peso could be secured to recite sixteen
mysteries and to read all the sacred books, even the Hebrew Bible, for a little extra. If at any time in the midst of pressing
difficulties he needed celestial aid and had not at hand even a red Chinese taper, he would <SPAN id="d0e1856"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e1856">38</SPAN>]</span>call upon his most adored saints, promising them many things for the purpose of putting them under obligation to him and ultimately
convincing them of the <span id="d0e1858" class="corr" title="Source: righteouness">righteousness</span> of his desires.
<p>The saint to whom he promised the most, and whose promises he was the most faithful in fulfilling, was the Virgin of Antipolo,
Our Lady of Peace and Prosperous Voyages.<SPAN id="d0e1863src" href="#d0e1863" class="noteref">1</SPAN> With many of the lesser saints he was not very punctual or even decent; and sometimes, after having his petitions granted,
he thought no more about them, though of course after such treatment he did not bother them again, when occasion arose. Capitan
Tiago knew that the calendar was full of idle saints who perhaps had nothing wherewith to occupy their time up there in heaven.
Furthermore, to the Virgin of Antipolo he ascribed greater power and efficiency than to all the other Virgins combined, whether
they carried silver canes, naked or richly clothed images of the Christ Child, scapularies, rosaries, or girdles. Perhaps
this reverence was owing to the fact that she was a very strict Lady, watchful of her name, and, according to the senior sacristan
of Antipolo, an enemy of photography. When she was angered she turned black as ebony, while <SPAN id="d0e1878"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e1878">39</SPAN>]</span>the other Virgins were softer of heart and more indulgent. It is a well-known fact that some minds love an absolute monarch
rather than a constitutional one, as witness Louis XIV and Louis XVI, Philip II and Amadeo I. This fact perhaps explains why
infidel Chinese and even Spaniards may be seen kneeling in the famous sanctuary; what is not explained is why the priests
run away with the money of the terrible Image, go to America, and get married there.
<p>In the sala of Capitan Tiago’s house, that door, hidden by a silk curtain leads to a small chapel or oratory such as must
be lacking in no Filipino home. There were placed his household gods—and we say “gods” because he was inclined to polytheism
rather than to monotheism, which he had never come to understand. There could be seen images of the Holy Family with busts
and extremities of ivory, glass eyes, long eyelashes, and curly blond hair—masterpieces of Santa Cruz sculpture. Paintings
in oil by artists of Paco and Ermita<SPAN id="d0e1882src" href="#d0e1882" class="noteref">2</SPAN> represented martyrdoms of saints and miracles of the Virgin; <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Lucy gazing at the sky and carrying in a plate an extra pair of eyes with lashes and eyebrows, such as are seen painted in
the triangle of the Trinity or on Egyptian tombs; <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Pascual Bailon; <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Anthony of Padua in a <i>guingón</i> habit looking with tears upon a Christ Child dressed as a Captain-General with the three-cornered hat, sword, and boots,
as in the children’s ball at Madrid that character is represented—which signified for Capitan Tiago that while God might include
in His omnipotence the power of a Captain-General of the Philippines, the Franciscans would nevertheless play with Him as
with a doll. There, might also be seen a <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Anthony the Abbot with a hog by his side, a hog that for the worthy Capitan was as miraculous as the saint himself, for which
reason he never dared to refer to it as the <i>hog</i>, but as the <i>creature of holy <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Anthony</i>; a <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Francis <SPAN id="d0e1912"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e1912">40</SPAN>]</span>of Assisi in a coffee-colored robe and with seven wings, placed over a <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Vincent who had only two but in compensation carried a trumpet; a <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Peter the Martyr with his head split open by the talibon of an evil-doer and held fast by a kneeling infidel, side by side
with another <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Peter cutting off the ear of a Moro, Malchus<SPAN id="d0e1923src" href="#d0e1923" class="noteref">3</SPAN> no doubt, who was gnawing his lips and writhing with pain, while a fighting-cock on a doric column crowed and flapped his
wings—from all of which Capitan Tiago deduced that in order to be a saint it was just as well to smite as to be smitten.
<p>Who could enumerate that army of images and recount the virtues and perfections that were treasured there! A whole chapter
would hardly suffice. Yet we must not pass over in silence a beautiful <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Michael of painted and gilded wood almost four feet high. The Archangel is biting his lower lip and with flashing eyes, frowning
forehead, and rosy cheeks is grasping a Greek shield and brandishing in his right hand a Sulu kris, ready, as would appear
from his attitude and expression, to smite a worshiper or any one else who might approach, rather than the horned and tailed
devil that had his teeth set in his girlish leg.
<p>Capitan Tiago never went near this image from fear of a miracle. Had not other images, even those more rudely carved ones
that issue from the carpenter shops of Paete,<SPAN id="d0e1933src" href="#d0e1933" class="noteref">4</SPAN> many times come to life for the confusion and punishment of incredulous sinners? It is a well-known fact that a certain image
of Christ in Spain, when invoked as a witness of promises of love, had assented with a movement of the head in the presence
of the judge, and that another such image had reached out its right arm to embrace <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Lutgarda. And furthermore, had he not himself read a booklet recently published about a mimic sermon preached <SPAN id="d0e1939"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e1939">41</SPAN>]</span>by an image of <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Dominic in Soriano? True, the saint had not said a single word, but from his movements it was inferred, at any rate the author
of the booklet inferred, that he was announcing the end of the world.<SPAN id="d0e1944src" href="#d0e1944" class="noteref">5</SPAN> Was it not reported, too, that the Virgin of Luta in the town of Lipa had one cheek swollen larger than the other and that
there was mud on the borders of her gown? Does not this prove mathematically that the holy images also walk about without
holding up their skirts and that they even suffer from the toothache, perhaps for our sake? Had he not seen with his own eyes,
during the regular Good-Friday sermon, all the images of Christ move and bow their heads thrice in unison, thereby calling
forth wails and cries from the women and other sensitive souls destined for Heaven? More? We ourselves have seen the preacher
show to the congregation at the moment of the descent from the cross a handkerchief stained with blood, and were ourselves
on the point of weeping piously, when, to the sorrow of our soul, a sacristan assured us that it was all a joke, that the
blood was that of a chicken which had been roasted and eaten on the spot in spite of the fact that it was Good Friday—and
the sacristan was fat! So Capitan Tiago, even though he was a prudent and pious individual, took care not to approach the
kris of <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Michael. “Let’s take no chances,” he would say to himself, “I know that he’s an archangel, but I don’t trust him, no, I don’t
<p>Not a year passed without his joining with an orchestra in the pilgrimage to the wealthy shrine of Antipolo. He paid for two
thanksgiving masses of the many that make up the three novenas, and also for the days when there are no novenas, and washed
himself afterwards in the famous <i>bátis</i>, or pool, where the sacred Image herself had bathed. Her votaries can even yet discern the tracks of her feet and the traces
of her locks in the hard rock, where she dried them, resembling exactly those made by any <SPAN id="d0e1958"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e1958">42</SPAN>]</span>woman who uses coconut-oil, and just as if her hair had been steel or diamonds and she had weighed a thousand tons. We should
like to see the terrible Image once shake her sacred hair in the eyes of those credulous persons and put her foot upon their
tongues or their heads. There at the very edge of the pool Capitan Tiago made it his duty to eat roast pig, <i>sinigang</i> of <i>dalag</i> with <i>alibambang</i> leaves, and other more or less appetizing dishes. The two masses would cost him over four hundred pesos, but it was cheap,
after all, if one considered the glory that the Mother of the Lord would acquire from the pin-wheels, rockets, bombs, and
mortars, and also the increased profits which, thanks to these masses, would come to one during the year.
<p>But Antipolo was not the only theater of his ostentatious devotion. In Binondo, in Pampanga, and in the town of San Diego,
when he was about to put up a fighting-cock with large wagers, he would send gold moneys to the curate for propitiatory masses
and, just as the Romans consulted the augurs before a battle, giving food to the sacred fowls, so Capitan Tiago would also
consult his augurs, with the modifications befitting the times and the new truths, tie would watch closely the flame of the
tapers, the smoke from the incense, the voice of the priest, and from it all attempt to forecast his luck. It was an admitted
fact that he lost very few wagers, and in those cases it was due to the unlucky circumstance that the officiating priest was
hoarse, or that the altar-candles were few or contained too much tallow, or that a bad piece of money had slipped in with
the rest. The warden of the Brotherhood would then assure him that such reverses were tests to which he was subjected by Heaven
to receive assurance of his fidelity and devotion. So, beloved by the priests, respected by the sacristans, humored by the
Chinese chandlers and the dealers in fireworks, he was a man happy in the religion of this world, and persons of discernment
and great piety even claimed for him great influence in the celestial court.
<p><SPAN id="d0e1972"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e1972">43</SPAN>]</span>That he was at peace with the government cannot be doubted, however difficult an achievement it may seem. Incapable of any
new idea and satisfied with his <i>modus vivendi</i>, he was ever ready to gratify the desires of the last official of the fifth class in every one of the offices, to make presents
of hams, capons, turkeys, and Chinese fruits at all seasons of the year. If he heard any one speak ill of the natives, he,
who did not consider himself as such, would join in the chorus and speak worse of them; if any one aspersed the Chinese or
Spanish mestizos, he would do the same, perhaps because he considered himself become a full-blooded Iberian. He was ever first
to talk in favor of any new imposition of taxes, or special assessment, especially when he smelled a contract or a farming
assignment behind it. He always had an orchestra ready for congratulating and serenading the governors, judges, and other
officials on their name-days and birthdays, at the birth or death of a relative, and in fact at every variation from the usual
monotony. For such occasions he would secure laudatory poems and hymns in which were celebrated “the kind and loving governor,”
“the brave and courageous judge for whom there awaits in heaven the palm of the just,” with many other things of the same
<p>He was the president of the rich guild of mestizos in spite of the protests of many of them, who did not regard him as one
of themselves. In the two years that he held this office he wore out ten frock coats, an equal number of high hats, and half
a dozen canes. The frock coat and the high hat were in evidence at the Ayuntamiento, in the governor-general’s palace, and
at military headquarters; the high hat and the frock coat might have been noticed in the cockpit, in the market, in the processions,
in the Chinese shops, and under the hat and within the coat might have been seen the perspiring Capitan Tiago, waving his
tasseled cane, directing, arranging, and throwing everything into disorder with marvelous activity and a gravity even more
<p><SPAN id="d0e1980"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e1980">44</SPAN>]</span>So the authorities saw in him a safe man, gifted with the best of dispositions, peaceful, tractable, and obsequious, who read
no books or newspapers from Spain, although he spoke Spanish well. Indeed, they rather looked upon him with the feeling with
which a poor student contemplates the worn-out heel of his old shoe, twisted by his manner of walking. In his case there was
truth in both the Christian and profane proverbs <i lang="la">beati pauperes spiritu</i> and <i lang="la">beati possidentes</i>,<SPAN id="d0e1988src" href="#d0e1988" class="noteref">6</SPAN> and there might well be applied to him that translation, according to some people incorrect, from the Greek, “Glory to God
in the highest and peace to men of good-will on earth!” even though we shall see further along that it is not sufficient for
men to have good-will in order to live in peace.
<p>The irreverent considered him a fool, the poor regarded him as a heartless and cruel exploiter of misery and want, and his
inferiors saw in him a despot and a tyrant. As to the women, ah, the women! Accusing rumors buzzed through the wretched nipa
huts, and it was said that wails and sobs might be heard mingled with the weak cries of an infant. More than one young woman
was pointed out by her neighbors with the finger of scorn: she had a downcast glance and a faded cheek. But such things never
robbed him of sleep nor did any maiden disturb his peace. It was an old woman who made him suffer, an old woman who was his
rival in piety and who had gained from many curates such enthusiastic praises and eulogies as he in his best days had never
<p>Between Capitan Tiago and this widow, who had inherited from brothers and cousins, there existed a holy rivalry which redounded
to the benefit of the Church as the competition among the Pampanga steamers then redounded to the benefit of the public. Did
Capitan Tiago present to some Virgin a silver wand ornamented with emeralds and topazes? At once Doña Patrocinio had ordered
another <SPAN id="d0e1995"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e1995">45</SPAN>]</span>of gold set with diamonds! If at the time of the Naval procession<SPAN id="d0e1997src" href="#d0e1997" class="noteref">7</SPAN> Capitan Tiago erected an arch with two façades, covered with ruffled cloth and decorated with mirrors, glass globes, and
chandeliers, then Doña Patrocinio would have another with four facades, six feet higher, and more gorgeous hangings. Then
he would fall back on his reserves, his strong point, his specialty—masses with bombs and fireworks; whereat Doña Patrocinia
could only gnaw at her lips with her toothless gums, because, being exceedingly nervous, she could not endure the chiming
of the bells and still less the explosions of the bombs. While he smiled in triumph, she would plan her revenge and pay the
money of others to secure the best orators of the five Orders in Manila, the most famous preachers of the Cathedral, and even
the Paulists,<SPAN id="d0e2009src" href="#d0e2009" class="noteref">8</SPAN> to preach on the holy days upon profound theological subjects to the sinners who understood only the vernacular of the mariners.
The partizans of Capitan Tiago would observe that she slept during the sermon; but her adherents would answer that the sermon
was paid for in advance, and by her, and that in any affair payment was the prime requisite. At length, she had driven him
from the field completely by presenting to the church three <i>andas</i> of gilded silver, each one of which cost her over three thousand pesos. Capitan Tiago hoped that the old woman would breathe
her last almost any day, or that she would lose five or six of her lawsuits, so that he might be alone in serving God; but
unfortunately the best lawyers of the <i>Real Audiencia</i> looked after her interests, and as to her health, there was no part of her that could be attacked by sickness; she seemed
to be a steel wire, no <SPAN id="d0e2021"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e2021">46</SPAN>]</span>doubt for the edification of souls, and she hung on in this vale of tears with the tenacity of a boil on the skin. Her adherents
were secure in the belief that she would be canonized at her death and that Capitan Tiago himself would have to worship her
at the altars—all of which he agreed to and cheerfully promised, provided only that she die soon.
<p>Such was Capitan Tiago in the days of which we write. As for the past, he was the only son of a sugar-planter of Malabon,
wealthy enough, but so miserly that he would not spend a cent to educate his son, for which reason the little Santiago had
been the servant of a good Dominican, a worthy man who had tried to train him in all of good that he knew and could teach.
When he had reached the happy stage of being known among his acquaintances as a <i>logician</i>, that is, when he began to study logic, the death of his protector, soon followed by that of his father, put an end to his
studies and he had to turn his attention to business affairs. He married a pretty young woman of Santa Cruz, who gave him
social position and helped him to make his fortune. Doña Pia Alba was not satisfied with buying and selling sugar, indigo,
and coffee, but wished to plant and reap, so the newly-married couple bought land in San Diego. From this time dated their
friendship with Padre Damoso and with Don Rafael Ibarra, the richest capitalist of the town.
<p>The lack of an heir in the first six years of their wedded life made of that eagerness to accumulate riches almost a censurable
ambition. Doña Pia was comely, strong, and healthy, yet it was in vain that she offered novenas and at the advice of the devout
women of San Diego made a pilgrimage to the Virgin of Kaysaysay<SPAN id="d0e2030src" href="#d0e2030" class="noteref">9</SPAN> in Taal, distributed <SPAN id="d0e2055"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e2055">47</SPAN>]</span>alms to the poor, and danced at midday in May in the procession of the Virgin of Turumba<SPAN id="d0e2057src" href="#d0e2057" class="noteref">10</SPAN> in Pakil. But it was all with no result until Fray Damaso advised her to go to Obando to dance in the fiesta of <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Pascual Bailon and ask him for a son. Now it is well known that there is in Obando a trinity which grants sons or daughters
according to request—Our Lady of Salambaw, <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Clara, and <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Pascual. Thanks to this wise advice, Doña Pia soon recognized the signs of approaching motherhood. But alas! like the fisherman
of whom Shakespeare tells in <i>Macbeth</i>, who ceased to sing when he had found a treasure, she at once lost all her mirthfulness, fell into melancholy, and was never
seen to smile again. “Capriciousness, <SPAN id="d0e2072"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e2072">48</SPAN>]</span>natural in her condition,” commented all, even Capitan Tiago. A puerperal fever put an end to her hidden grief, and she died,
leaving behind a beautiful girl baby for whom Fray Damaso himself stood sponsor. As <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Pascual had not granted the son that was asked, they gave the child the name of Maria Clara, in honor of the Virgin of Salambaw
and <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Clara, punishing the worthy <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Pascual with silence.
<p>The little girl grew up under the care of her aunt Isabel, that good old lady of monkish urbanity whom we met at the beginning
of the story. For the most part, her early life was spent in San Diego, on account of its healthful climate, and there Padre
Damaso was devoted to her.
<p>Maria Clara had not the small eyes of her father; like her mother, she had eyes large, black, long-lashed, merry and smiling
when she was playing but sad, deep, and pensive in moments of repose. As a child her hair was curly and almost blond, her
straight nose was neither too pointed nor too flat, while her mouth with the merry dimples at the corners recalled the small
and pleasing one of her mother, her skin had the fineness of an onion-cover and was white as cotton, according to her perplexed
relatives, who found the traces of Capitan Tiago’s paternity in her small and shapely ears. Aunt Isabel ascribed her half-European
features to the longings of Doña Pia, whom she remembered to have seen many times weeping before the image of <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Anthony. Another cousin was of the same opinion, differing only in the choice of the smut, as for her it was either the Virgin
herself or <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Michael. A famous philosopher, who was the cousin of Capitan Tinong and who had memorized the “Amat,”<SPAN id="d0e2093src" href="#d0e2093" class="noteref">11</SPAN> sought for the true explanation in planetary influences.
<p>The idol of all, Maria Clara grew up amidst smiles and love. The very friars showered her with attentions when she appeared
in the processions dressed in white, her <SPAN id="d0e2098"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e2098">49</SPAN>]</span>abundant hair interwoven with tuberoses and sampaguitas, with two diminutive wings of silver and gold fastened on the back
of her gown, and carrying in her hands a pair of white doves tied with blue ribbons. Afterwards, she would be so merry and
talk so sweetly in her childish simplicity that the enraptured Capitan Tiago could do nothing but bless the saints of Obando
and advise every one to purchase beautiful works of sculpture.
<p>In southern countries the girl of thirteen or fourteen years changes into a woman as the bud of the night becomes a flower
in the morning. At this period of change, so full of mystery and romance, Maria Clara was placed, by the advice of the curate
of Binondo, in the nunnery of <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Catherine<SPAN id="d0e2105src" href="#d0e2105" class="noteref">12</SPAN> in order to receive strict religious training from the Sisters. With tears she took leave of Padre Damaso and of the only
lad who had been a friend of her childhood, Crisostomo Ibarra, who himself shortly afterward went away to Europe. There in
that convent, which communicates with the world through double bars, even under the watchful eyes of the nuns, she spent seven
<p>Each having his own particular ends in view and knowing the mutual inclinations of the two young persons, Don Rafael and Capitan
Tiago agreed upon the marriage of their children and the formation of a business partnership. This agreement, which was concluded
some years after the younger Ibarra’s departure, was celebrated with equal joy by two hearts in widely separated parts of
the world and under very different circumstances.
<SPAN id="d0e2113"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e2113">50</SPAN>]</span></p>
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e1863" href="#d0e1863src" class="noteref">1</SPAN></span> This celebrated Lady was first brought from Acapulco, Mexico, by Juan Niño de Tabora, when he came to govern the Philippines
in 1626. By reason of her miraculous powers of allaying the storms she was carried back and forth in the state galleons on
a number of voyages, until in 1672 she was formally installed in a church in the hills northeast of Manila, under the care
of the Augustinian Fathers. While her shrine was building she is said to have appeared to the faithful in the top of a large
breadfruit tree, which is known to the Tagalogs as “antipolo”; hence her name. Hers is the best known and most frequented
shrine in the country, while she disputes with the Holy Child of Cebu the glory of being the wealthiest individual in the
<p class="footnote">There has always existed a pious rivalry between her and the Dominicans’ Lady of the Rosary as to which is the patron saint
of the Philippines, the contest being at times complicated by counterclaims on the part of <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Francis, although the entire question would seem to have been definitely settled by a royal decree, published about 1650,
officially conferring that honorable post upon <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Michael the Archangel (San Miguel). A rather irreverent sketch of this celebrated queen of the skies appears in Chapter XI
of Foreman’s <i>The Philippine Islands</i>.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e1882" href="#d0e1882src" class="noteref">2</SPAN></span> Santa Cruz, Paco, and Ermita are districts of Manila, outside the Walled City.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e1923" href="#d0e1923src" class="noteref">3</SPAN></span> John xviii. 10.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e1933" href="#d0e1933src" class="noteref">4</SPAN></span> A town in Laguna Province, noted for the manufacture of furniture.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e1944" href="#d0e1944src" class="noteref">5</SPAN></span> God grant that this prophecy may soon be fulfilled for the author of the booklet and all of us who believe it. Amen.—<i>Author’s note</i>.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e1988" href="#d0e1988src" class="noteref">6</SPAN></span> “Blessed are the poor in spirit” and “blessed are the possessors.”—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e1997" href="#d0e1997src" class="noteref">7</SPAN></span> The annual celebration of the Dominican Order held in October in honor of its patroness, the Virgin of the Rosary, to whose
intervention was ascribed the victory over a Dutch fleet in 1646, whence the name. See <i>Guía Oficial de Filipinas</i>, 1885, pp. 138, 139; Montero y Vidal, <i>Historia General de Filipinas</i>, Vol. I, Chap. XXIII; Blair and Robertson, <i>The Philippine Islands</i>, Vol. XXXV, pp. 249, 250.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e2009" href="#d0e2009src" class="noteref">8</SPAN></span> Members of the Society of <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Vincent de Paul, whose chief business is preaching and teaching. They entered the Philippines in 1862.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e2030" href="#d0e2030src" class="noteref">9</SPAN></span> “Kaysaysay: A celebrated sanctuary in the island of Luzon, province of Batangas, jurisdiction, of Taal, so called because
there is venerated in it a Virgin who bears that name ....
<p class="footnote">“The image is in the center of the high altar, where there is seen an eagle in half-relief, whose abdomen is left open in
order to afford a tabernacle for the Virgin: an idea enchanting to many of the Spaniards <SPAN id="d0e2035"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e2035">47n</SPAN>]</span>established in the Philippines during the last century, but which in our opinion any sensible person will characterize as
<p class="footnote">“This image of the Virgin of Kaysaysay enjoys the fame of being very miraculous, so that the Indians gather from great distances
to hear mass in her sanctuary every Saturday. Her discovery, over two and a half centuries ago, is notable in that she was
found in the sea during some fisheries, coming up in a drag-net with the fish. It is thought that this venerable image of
the Filipinos may have been in some ship which was wrecked and that the currents carried her up to the coast, where she was
found in the manner related.
<p class="footnote">“The Indians, naturally credulous and for the most part quite superstitious, in spite of the advancements in civilization
and culture, relate that she appeared afterwards in some trees, and in memory of these manifestations an arch representing
them was erected at a short distance from the place where her sanctuary is now located.”—Buzeta and Bravo’s <i>Diccionario</i>, Madrid, 1850, but copied “with proper modifications for the times and the new truths” from Zuñiga’s <i>Estadismo</i>, which, though written in 1803 and not published until 1893, was yet used by later writers, since it was preserved in manuscript
in the convent of the Augustinians in Manila, Buzeta and Bravo, as well as Zuñiga, being members of that order.
<p class="footnote">So great was the reverence for this Lady that the Acapulco galleons on their annual voyages were accustomed to fire salutes
in her honor as they passed along the coast near her shrine.—Foreman. <i>The Philippine Islands</i>, quoting from the account of an eruption of Taal Volcano in 1749, by Fray Francisco Vencuchillo.
<p class="footnote">This Lady’s sanctuary, where she is still “enchanting” in her “eagle in half-relief,” stands out prominently on the hill above
the town of Taal, plainly visible from Balayan Bay.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e2057" href="#d0e2057src" class="noteref">10</SPAN></span> A Tagalog term meaning “to tumble,” or “to caper about,” doubtless from the actions of the Lady’s devotees. Pakil is a town
in Laguna Province.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e2093" href="#d0e2093src" class="noteref">11</SPAN></span> A work on scholastic philosophy, by a Spanish prelate of that name.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e2105" href="#d0e2105src" class="noteref">12</SPAN></span> The nunnery and college of <span class="abbr" title="Saint"><abbr title="Saint">St.</abbr></span> Catherine of Sienna (“Santa Catalina de la Sena”) was founded by the Dominican Fathers in 1696.—TR.