<div id="d0e3458" class="div1"><span class="pagenum">
</span><h2 class="label">Chapter XIX</h2>
<h2>A Schoolmaster’s Difficulties</h2>
<div class="epigraph" lang="es">
<p class="line" style=""><span>El vulgo es necio y pues lo paga, es justo
<p class="line" style=""><span>Hablarle en necio para darle el gusto.<SPAN id="d0e3469src" href="#d0e3469" class="noteref">1</SPAN>
<p>LOPE DE VEGA.</p>
<p>The mountain-encircled lake slept peacefully with that hypocrisy of the elements which gave no hint of how its waters had
the night before responded to the fury of the storm. As the first reflections of light awoke on its surface the phosphorescent
spirits, there were outlined in the distance, almost on the horizon, the gray silhouettes of the little bankas of the fishermen
who were taking in their nets and of the larger craft spreading their sails. Two men dressed in deep mourning stood gazing
at the water from a little elevation: one was Ibarra and the other a youth of humble aspect and melancholy features.
<p>“This is the place,” the latter was saying. “From here your father’s body was thrown into the water. Here’s where the grave-digger
brought Lieutenant Guevara and me.”
<p>Ibarra warmly grasped the hand of the young man, who went on: “You have no occasion to thank me. I owed many favors to your
father, and the only thing that I could do for him was to accompany his body to the grave. I came here without knowing any
one, without recommendation, and having neither name nor fortune, just as at present. My predecessor had abandoned the school
to engage in the tobacco trade. Your father protected me, secured me a house, and furnished whatever was necessary <SPAN id="d0e3480"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3480">126</SPAN>]</span>for running the school. He used to visit the classes and distribute pictures among the poor but studious children, as well
as provide them with books and paper. But this, like all good things, lasted only a little while.”
<p>Ibarra took off his hat and seemed to be praying for a time. Then he turned to his companion: “Did you say that my father
helped the poor children? And now?”
<p>“Now they get along as well as possible and write when they can,” answered the youth.
<p>“What is the reason?”
<p>“The reason lies in their torn camisas and their downcast eyes.”
<p>“How many pupils have you now?” asked Ibarra with interest, after a pause.
<p>“More than two hundred on the roll but only about twenty-five in actual attendance.”
<p>“How does that happen?”
<p>The schoolmaster smiled sadly as he answered, “To tell you the reasons would make a long and tiresome story.”
<p>“Don’t attribute my question to idle curiosity,” replied Ibarra gravely, while he stared at the distant horizon. “I’ve thought
better of it and believe that to carry out my father’s ideas will be more fitting than to weep for him, and far better than
to revenge him. Sacred nature has become his grave, and his enemies were the people and a priest. The former I pardon on account
of their ignorance and the latter because I wish that Religion, which elevated society, should be respected. I wish to be
inspired with the spirit of him who gave me life and therefore desire to know about the obstacles encountered here in educational
<p>“The country will bless your memory, sir,” said the schoolmaster, “if you carry out the beautiful plans of your dead father!
You wish to know the obstacles which the progress of education meets? Well then, under present circumstances, without substantial
aid education will never amount to much; in the very first place because, even when <SPAN id="d0e3502"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3502">127</SPAN>]</span>we have the pupils, lack of suitable means, and other things that attract them more, kill off their interest. It is said that
in Germany a peasant’s son studies for eight years in the town school, but who here would spend half that time when such poor
results are to be obtained? They read, write, and memorize selections, and sometimes whole books, in Spanish, without understanding
a single word.<SPAN id="d0e3504src" href="#d0e3504" class="noteref">2</SPAN> What benefit does our country child get from the school?”
<p>“And why have you, who see the evil, not thought of remedying it?”
<p>The schoolmaster shook his head sadly. “A poor teacher struggles not only against prejudices but also against certain influences.
First, it would be necessary to have a suitable place and not to do as I must at present—hold the classes under the convento
by the side of the padre’s carriage. There the children, who like to read aloud, very naturally disturb the padre, and he
often comes down, nervous, especially when he has his attacks, yells at them, and even insults me at times. You know that
no one can either teach or learn under such circumstances, for the child will not respect his teacher when he sees him abused
without standing up for his rights. In order to be heeded and to maintain his authority the teacher needs prestige, reputation,
moral strength, and some freedom of action.
<p><SPAN id="d0e3518"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3518">128</SPAN>]</span>“Now let me recount to you even sadder details. I have wished to introduce reforms and have been laughed at. In order to remedy
the evil of which I just spoke to you, I tried to teach Spanish to the children because, in addition to the fact that the
government so orders, I thought also that it would be of advantage for everybody. I used the simplest method of words and
phrases without paying any attention to long rules, expecting to teach them grammar when they should understand the language.
At the end of a few weeks some of the brightest were almost able to understand me and could use a few phrases.”
<p>The schoolmaster paused and seemed to hesitate, then, as if making a resolution, he went on: “I must not be ashamed of the
story of my wrongs, for any one in my place would have acted the same as I did. As I said, it was a good beginning, but a
few days afterwards Padre Damaso, who was the curate then, sent for me by the senior sacristan. Knowing his disposition and
fearing to make him wait, I went upstairs at once, saluted him, and wished him good-morning in Spanish. His only greeting
had been to put out his hand for me to kiss, but at this he drew it back and without answering me began to laugh loud and
mockingly. I was very much embarrassed, as the senior sacristan was present. At the moment I didn’t know just what to say,
for the curate continued his laughter and I stood staring at him. Then I began to get impatient and saw that I was about to
do something indiscreet, since to be a good Christian and to preserve one’s dignity are not incompatible. I was going to put
a question to him when suddenly, passing from ridicule to insult, he said sarcastically, ‘So it’s <i>buenos dins, eh? Buenos dias!</i> How nice that you know how to talk Spanish!’ Then again he broke out into laughter.”
<p>Ibarra was unable to repress a smile.
<p>“You smile,” continued the schoolmaster, following Ibarra’s example, “but I must confess that at the time I had very little
desire to laugh. I was still standing—I <SPAN id="d0e3529"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3529">129</SPAN>]</span>felt the blood rush to my head and lightning seemed to flash through my brain. The curate I saw far, far away. I advanced
to reply to him without knowing just what I was going to say, but the senior sacristan put himself between us. Padre Damaso
arose and said to me in Tagalog: ‘Don’t try to shine in borrowed finery. Be content to talk your own dialect and don’t spoil
Spanish, which isn’t meant for you. Do you know the teacher Ciruela?<SPAN id="d0e3531src" href="#d0e3531" class="noteref">3</SPAN> Well, Ciruela was a teacher who didn’t know how to read, and he had a school.’ I wanted to detain him, but he went into his
bedroom and slammed the door.
<p>“What was I to do with only my meager salary, to collect which I have to get the curate’s approval and make a trip to the
capital of the province, what could I do against him, the foremost religious and political power in the town, backed up by
his Order, feared by the government, rich, powerful, sought after and listened to, always believed and heeded by everybody?
Although he insulted me, I had to remain silent, for if I replied he would have had me removed from my position, by which
I should lose all hope in my chosen profession. Nor would the cause of education gain anything, but the opposite, for everybody
would take the curate’s side, they would curse me and call me presumptuous, proud, vain, a bad Christian, uncultured, and
if not those things, then anti-Spanish and a filibuster. Of a schoolmaster neither learning nor zeal is expected; resignation,
humility, and inaction only are asked. May God pardon me if I have gone against my conscience and my judgement, but I was
born in this country, I have to live, I have a mother, so I have abandoned myself to my fate like a corpse tossed about by
<p>“Did this difficulty discourage you for all time? Have you lived so since?”
<p>“Would that it had been a warning to me! If only <SPAN id="d0e3543"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3543">130</SPAN>]</span>my troubles had been limited to that! It is true that from that time I began to dislike my profession and thought of seeking
some other occupation, as my predecessor had done, because any work that is done in disgust and shame is a kind of martyrdom
and because every day the school recalled the insult to my mind, causing me hours of great bitterness. But what was I to do?
I could not undeceive my mother, I had to say to her that her three years of sacrifice to give me this profession now constituted
my happiness. It is necessary to make her believe that this profession is most honorable, the work delightful, the way strewn
with flowers, that the performance of my duties brings me only friendship, that the people respect me and show me every consideration.
By doing otherwise, without ceasing to be unhappy myself, I should have caused more sorrow, which besides being useless would
also be a sin. I stayed on, therefore, and tried not to feel discouraged. I tried to struggle on.”
<p>Here he paused for a while, then resumed: “From the day on which I was so grossly insulted I began to examine myself and I
found that I was in fact very ignorant. I applied myself day and night to the study of Spanish and whatever concerned my profession.
The old Sage lent me some books, and I read and pondered over everything that I could get hold of. With the new ideas that
I have been acquiring in one place and another my point of view has changed and I have seen many things under a different
aspect from what they had appeared to me before. I saw error where before I had seen only truth, and truth in many things
where I had formerly seen only error. Corporal punishment, for example, which from time immemorial has been the distinctive
feature in the schools and which has heretofore been considered as the only efficacious means of making pupils learn—so we
have been accustomed to believe—soon appeared to me to be a great hindrance rather than in any way an aid to the child’s progress.
I became convinced that it was impossible to use one’s mind <SPAN id="d0e3547"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3547">131</SPAN>]</span>properly when blows, or similar punishment, were in prospect. Fear and terror disturb the most serene, and a child’s imagination,
besides being very lively, is also very impressionable. As it is on the brain that ideas are impressed, it is necessary that
there be both inner and outer calm, that there be serenity of spirit, physical and moral repose, and willingness, so I thought
that before everything else I should cultivate in the children confidence, assurance, and some personal pride. Moreover, I
comprehended that the daily sight of floggings destroyed kindness in their hearts and deadened all sense of dignity, which
is such a powerful lever in the world. At the same time it caused them to lose their sense of shame, which is a difficult
thing to restore. I have also observed that when one pupil is flogged, he gets comfort from the fact that the others are treated
in the same way, and that he smiles with satisfaction upon hearing the wails of the others. As for the person who does the
flogging, while at first he may do it with repugnance, he soon becomes hardened to it and even takes delight in his gloomy
task. The past filled me with horror, so I wanted to save the present by modifying the old system. I endeavored to make study
a thing of love and joy, I wished to make the primer not a black book bathed in the tears of childhood but a friend who was
going to reveal wonderful secrets, and of the schoolroom not a place of sorrows but a scene of intellectual refreshment. So,
little by little, I abolished corporal punishment, taking the instruments of it entirely away from the school and replacing
them with emulation and personal pride. If one was careless about his lesson, I charged it to lack of desire and never to
lack of capacity. I made them think that they were more capable than they really were, which urged them on to study just as
any confidence leads to notable achievements. At first it seemed that the change of method was impracticable; many ceased
their studies, but I persisted and observed that little by little their minds were being elevated and that more children came,
that they <SPAN id="d0e3549"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3549">132</SPAN>]</span>came with more regularity, and that he who was praised in the presence of the others studied with double diligence on the
<p>“It soon became known throughout the town that I did not whip the children. The curate sent for me, and fearing another scene
I greeted him curtly in Tagalog. On this occasion he was very serious with me. He said that I was exposing the children to
destruction, that I was wasting time, that I was not fulfilling my duties, that the father who spared the rod was spoiling
the child—according to the Holy Ghost—that learning enters with blood, and so on. He quoted to me sayings of barbarous times
just as if it were enough that a thing had been said by the ancients to make it indisputable; according to which we ought
to believe that there really existed those monsters which in past ages were imaged and sculptured in the palaces and temples.
Finally, he charged me to be more careful and to return to the old system, otherwise he would make unfavorable report about
me to the alcalde of the province. Nor was this the end of my troubles. A few days afterward some of the parents of the children
presented themselves under the convento and I had to call to my aid all my patience and resignation. They began by reminding
me of former times when teachers had character and taught as their grandfathers had. ‘Those indeed were the times of the wise
men,’ they declared, ‘they whipped, and straightened the bent tree. They were not boys but old men of experience, gray-haired
and severe. Don Catalino, king of them all and founder of this very school, used to administer no less than twenty-five blows
and as a result his pupils became wise men and priests. Ah, the old people were worth more than we ourselves, yes, sir, more
than we ourselves!’ Some did not content themselves with such indirect rudeness, but told me plainly that if I continued my
system their children would learn nothing and that they would be obliged to take them from the school It was useless to argue
with them, for as a <SPAN id="d0e3553"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3553">133</SPAN>]</span>young man they thought me incapable of sound judgment. What would I not have given for some gray hairs! They cited the authority
of the curate, of this one and that one, and even called attention to themselves, saying that if it had not been for the whippings
they had received from their teachers they would never have learned anything. Only a few persons showed any sympathy to sweeten
for me the bitterness of such a disillusioning.
<p>“In view of all this I had to give up my system, which, after so much toil, was just beginning to produce results. In desperation
I carried the whips bank to the school the next day and began the barbarous practice again. Serenity disappeared and sadness
reigned in the faces of the children, who had just begun to care for me, and who were my only kindred and friends. Although
I tried to spare the whippings and to administer them with all the moderation possible, yet the children felt the change keenly,
they became discouraged and wept bitterly. It touched my heart, and even though in my own mind I was vexed with the stupid
parents, still I was unable to take any spite out on those innocent victims of their parents’ prejudices. Their tears burned
me, my heart seemed bursting from my breast, and that day I left the school before closing-time to go home and weep alone.
Perhaps my sensitiveness may seem strange to you, but if you had been in my place you would understand it. Old Don Anastasio
said to me, ‘So the parents want floggings? Why not inflict them on themselves?’ As a result of it all I became sick.” Ibarra
was listening thoughtfully.
<p>“Scarcely had I recovered when I returned to the school to find the number of my pupils reduced to a fifth. The better ones
had run away upon the return to the old system, and of those who remained—mostly those who came to school to escape work at
home—not one showed any joy, not one congratulated me on my recovery. It would have been the same to them whether I got well
or not, or they might have preferred that I continue sick since my <SPAN id="d0e3559"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3559">134</SPAN>]</span>substitute, although he whipped them more, rarely went to the school. My other pupils, those whose parents had obliged them
to attend school, had gone to other places. Their parents blamed me for having spoiled them and heaped reproaches on me for
it. One, however, the son of a country woman who visited me during my illness, had not returned on account of having been
made a sacristan, and the senior sacristan says that the sacristans must not attend school: they would be dismissed.”
<p>“Were you resigned in looking after your new pupils?” asked Ibarra.
<p>“What else could I do?” was the queried reply. “Nevertheless, during my illness many things had happened, among them a change
of curates, so I took new hope and made another attempt to the end that the children should not lose all their time and should,
in so far as possible, get some benefit from the floggings, that such things might at least have some good result for them.
I pondered over the matter, as I wished that even if they could not love me, by getting something useful from me, they might
remember me with less bitterness. You know that in nearly all the schools the books are in Spanish, with the exception of
the catechism in Tagalog, which varies according to the religious order to which the curate belongs. These books are generally
novenas, canticles, and the Catechism of Padre Astete,<SPAN id="d0e3565src" href="#d0e3565" class="noteref">4</SPAN> from which they learn about as much piety as they would from the books of heretics. Seeing the impossibility of teaching
the pupils in Spanish or of translating so many books, I tried to substitute short passages from useful works in Tagalog,
such as the Treatise on Manners by Hortensio y Feliza, some manuals of Agriculture, and so forth. Sometimes I would myself
translate simple works, such as Padre Barranera’s <SPAN id="d0e3577"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3577">135</SPAN>]</span>History of the Philippines, which I then dictated to the children, with at times a few observations of my own, so that they
might make note-books. As I had no maps for teaching geography, I copied one of the province that I saw at the capital and
with this and the tiles of the floor I gave them some idea of the country. This time it was the women who got excited. The
men contented themselves with smiling, as they saw in it only one of my vagaries. The new curate sent for me, and while he
did not reprimand me, yet he said that I should first take care of religion, that before learning such things the children
must pass an examination to show that they had memorized the mysteries, the canticles, and the catechism of Christian Doctrine.
<p>“So then, I am now working to the end that the children become changed into parrots and know by heart so many things of which
they do not understand a single word. Many of them now know the mysteries and the canticles, but I fear that my efforts will
come to grief with the Catechism of Padre Astete, since the greater part of the pupils do not distinguish between the questions
and the answers, nor do they understand what either may mean. Thus we shall die, thus those unborn will do, while in Europe
they will talk of progress.”
<p>“Let’s not be so pessimistic,” said Ibarra. “The teniente-mayor has sent me an invitation to attend a meeting in the town
hall. Who knows but that there you may find an answer to your questions?”
<p>The schoolmaster shook his head in doubt as he answered: “You’ll see how the plan of which they talked to me meets the same
fate as mine has. But yet, let us see!”
<SPAN id="d0e3585"></SPAN><span class="pagenum">[<SPAN href="#d0e3585">136</SPAN>]</span></p>
<p class="footnote" lang="en-us"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e3469" href="#d0e3469src" class="noteref">1</SPAN></span> The common crowd is a fool and since it pays for it, it is proper to talk to it foolishly to please it.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e3504" href="#d0e3504src" class="noteref">2</SPAN></span> “The schools are under the inspection of the parish priests. Reading and writing in Spanish are taught, or at least it is
so ordered; but the schoolmaster himself usually does not know it, and on the other hand the Spanish government employees
do not understand the vernacular. Besides, the curates, in order to preserve their influence intact, do not look favorably
upon the spread of Castilian. About the only ones who know Spanish are the Indians who have been in the service of Europeans.
The first reading exercise is some devotional book, then the catechism; the reader is called <i>Casaysayan</i>. On the average half of the children between seven and ten years attend school; they learn to read fairly well and some to
write a little, but they soon forget it.”—Jagor, <i>Viajes por Filipinas</i> (Vidal’s Spanish version). Jagor was speaking particularly of the settled parts of the Bicol region. Referring to the islands
generally, his “half of the children” would be a great exaggeration.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e3531" href="#d0e3531src" class="noteref">3</SPAN></span> A delicate bit of sarcasm is lost in the translation here. The reference to <i>Maestro Ciruela</i> in Spanish is somewhat similar to a mention in English of Mr. Squeers, of Dotheboys Hall fame.—TR.
<p class="footnote"><span class="label"><SPAN id="d0e3565" href="#d0e3565src" class="noteref">4</SPAN></span> By one of the provisions of a royal decree of December 20, 1863, the <i>Catecismo de la Doctrina Cristina</i>, by Gaspar Astete, was prescribed as the text-book for primary schools, in the Philippines. See Blair and Robertson’s <i>The Philippine Islands</i>, Vol. XLVI, p. 98; <i>Census of the Philippine Islands</i> (Washington, 1905), p. 584.—TR.