Victoria Alexandrina, only daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III. Born at Kensington, May 24, 1819. Became Queen, June 20, 1837.
Married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Prince Consort, born August 26, 1819, died December 14, 1861.
Died January 22, 1901, after a reign of sixty-three years.
|1838.||Commencement of the Chartist Movement.|
|1840.||PENNY POSTAGE ESTABLISHED mainly through the efforts of
War with China.
|1841.||Sir Robert Peel appointed Premier.|
|1842.||War with Afghanistan. Peace with China. The Chinese cede Hong Kong.|
|1843.||Agitation in Ireland for the Repeal of the Union.
Arrest of Daniel O'Connell.
|1845.||War with the Sikhs.
Failure of potato crop in Ireland, which resulted in a famine in the following winter.
|1846.||Repeal of the Corn Laws.
Lord John Russell appointed Premier.
|1848.||Revolution in France. Prince Louis Napoleon becomes President
of the Republic.
Chartist Agitation in London.
|1849.||Annexation of the Punjab.|
|1850.||Death of Sir Robert Peel.|
|1851.||THE GREAT EXHIBITION.|
|1852.||Death of the Duke of Wellington.
Louis Napoleon elected Emperor of France.
|1853.||Turkey declares war against Russia.|
|1854.||Great Britain and France declare war against Russia.
THE CRIMEAN WAR.
Invasion of the Crimea. The Battle of the Alma (Sept. 20). Siege of Sebastopol. Battle of Balaclava and Charge of the Light Brigade (Oct. 25).
Battle of Inkerman (Nov. 5).
|1855.||Lord Palmerston appointed Premier.
Death of the Emperor Nicholas of Russia.
Fall of Sebastopol (Sept.).
|1856.||Peace concluded with Russia by the Treaty of Paris.|
|1857.||THE INDIAN MUTINY.
The massacre at Cawnpore (July). Capture of Delhi (Sept.).
Sir Colin Campbell relieves Lucknow (Nov.).
|1858.||Suppression of the Mutiny.
Abolition of the East India Company. The possessions and powers of the Company transferred to the Crown. The Queen's Proclamation to India issued by Lord Canning, first Viceroy.
|1859.||Establishment of the Volunteer Army.
Fenianism in Ireland. Trial of O'Donovan Rossa.
|1860.||Second Chinese War and occupation of Pekin.|
|1861.||THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR.
Repeal of the duty on paper.
|1862.||The second Great Exhibition.|
|1865.||Death of Lord Palmerston. Lord Russell appointed Premier.|
|1866.||THE ATLANTIC CABLE LAID. Lord Derby appointed Premier.
The war between Austria and Prussia.
|1867.||THE SECOND REFORM BILL passed. It largely extended the suffrage in English boroughs.|
|1868.||Disraeli appointed Premier.|
|1869.||Suez Canal opened.|
|1870.||THE ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ACT passed, which compelled the
attendance of children at efficient schools.
The Franco-German War.
Halfpenny postcards first came into use.
|1871.||Establishment of the German Empire.
TREATY OF WASHINGTON, which settled by arbitration the Alabama claims.
|1872.||The Ballot Act passed to secure secret voting at elections.|
|1874.||Disraeli appointed Premier for the second time.|
|1875.||Purchase of shares in the Suez Canal.|
|1876.||Disraeli becomes Earl of Beaconsfield.
THE QUEEN PROCLAIMED EMPRESS OF INDIA.
|1878.||Congress of Berlin to settle the Eastern Question.
Great Britain was represented by Lords Salisbury and
Second Afghan War.
|1879.||War in Zululand.|
|1880.||Rising of the Boers in the Transvaal.|
|1881.||Defeat of the British at Majuba Hill. Peace concluded in March.
Death of Lord Beaconsfield.
|1882.||OCCUPATION OF EGYPT. Bombardment of Alexandria and the Battle of Tel-el-Kebir.|
|1883.||War in the Soudan. Defeat of Hicks Pasha.|
|1885.||Fall of Khartoum and death of General Gordon.
Number of Members of Parliament increased from 658 to 670.
The Revised Version of the Bible.
|1886.||Annexation of Upper Burmah.|
|1888.||Death of the Emperor William I. of Germany, and of his son
Frederick III. Succession of William II.
The Local Government Act, by which England and Wales was divided into counties and county boroughs for purposes of local government.
|1889.||Charter granted to British South African Co.|
|1896.||The Jameson Raid.|
|1897.||The 'Diamond' Jubilee.|
|1898.||Death of Gladstone.
War in Soudan. Battle of Omdurman.
|1899.||South African War.|