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Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England

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<SPAN name="toc11" id="toc11"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf12" id="pdf12"></SPAN> <h1 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 3.46em; margin-top: 3.46em"> <span style="font-size: 173%">Book I</span></h1> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc13" id="toc13"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf14" id="pdf14"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_I" id="Book_I_Chap_I" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. I. Of the Situation of Britain and Ireland, and of their ancient inhabitants.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Britain, an island in the Atlantic, formerly called Albion, lies to the north-west, facing, though at a considerable distance, the coasts of Germany, France, and Spain, which form the greatest part of Europe. It extends 800 miles in length towards the north, and is 200 miles in breadth, except where several promontories extend further in breadth, by which its compass is made to be 4,875 miles.<SPAN id="noteref_22" name="noteref_22" href= "#note_22"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">22</span></span></SPAN> To the south lies Belgic Gaul. To its nearest shore there is an easy passage from the city of Rutubi Portus, by the English now corrupted into Reptacaestir.<SPAN id="noteref_23" name="noteref_23" href="#note_23"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">23</span></span></SPAN> The distance from here across the sea to Gessoriacum,<SPAN id="noteref_24" name="noteref_24" href="#note_24"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">24</span></span></SPAN> the nearest shore in the territory of the Morini,<SPAN id="noteref_25" name="noteref_25" href="#note_25"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">25</span></span></SPAN> is fifty miles, or as some writers say, 450 furlongs. On the other side of the island, where it opens upon the boundless ocean, it has the islands called Orcades. Britain is rich in grain and trees, and is well adapted for feeding cattle and beasts of burden. It also produces vines in some places, and has plenty of land and water fowl of divers sorts; it is remarkable also for rivers abounding in fish, and plentiful springs. It has the greatest plenty of salmon and eels; seals are also frequently taken, and dolphins, as also whales; besides many sorts of shell-fish, such as mussels, in which are often found excellent pearls of all colours, red, purple, violet and green, but chiefly white. There is also a great abundance of snails, of which the scarlet dye is made, a most beautiful red, which never fades with the heat of the sun or exposure to rain, but the older it is, the more beautiful it becomes. It has both salt and hot <span class="tei tei-pb" id= "page006">[pg 006]</span><SPAN name="Pg006" id="Pg006" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> springs, and from them flow rivers which furnish hot baths, proper for all ages and both sexes, in separate places, according to their requirements. For water, as St. Basil says,<SPAN id="noteref_26" name="noteref_26" href= "#note_26"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">26</span></span></SPAN> receives the quality of heat, when it runs along certain metals, and becomes not only hot but scalding. Britain is rich also in veins of metals, as copper, iron, lead, and silver; it produces a great deal of excellent jet, which is black and sparkling, and burns when put to the fire, and when set on fire, drives away serpents; being warmed with rubbing, it attracts whatever is applied to it, like amber. The island was formerly distinguished by twenty-eight famous cities, besides innumerable forts, which were all strongly secured with walls, towers, gates, and bars. And, because it lies almost under the North Pole, the nights are light in summer, so that at midnight the beholders are often in doubt whether the evening twilight still continues, or that of the morning has come; since the sun at night returns to the east in the northern regions without passing far beneath the earth. For this reason the days are of a great length in summer, and on the other hand, the nights in winter are eighteen hours long, for the sun then withdraws into southern parts. In like manner the nights are very short in summer, and the days in winter, that is, only six equinoctial hours. Whereas, in Armenia, Macedonia, Italy, and other countries of the same latitude, the longest day or night extends but to fifteen hours, and the shortest to nine.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">There are in the island at present, following the number of the books in which the Divine Law was written, five<SPAN id="noteref_27" name="noteref_27" href="#note_27"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">27</span></span></SPAN> languages of different nations employed in the study and confession of the one self-same knowledge, which is of highest truth and true sublimity, to wit, English, British, Scottish, Pictish, and Latin, the last having become common to all by the study of the Scriptures. But at first this island had no other inhabitants but the Britons, <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page007">[pg 007]</span><SPAN name="Pg007" id="Pg007" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> from whom it derived its name, and who, coming over into Britain, as is reported, from Armorica,<SPAN id="noteref_28" name="noteref_28" href="#note_28"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">28</span></span></SPAN> possessed themselves of the southern parts thereof. Starting from the south, they had occupied the greater part of the island, when it happened, that the nation of the Picts, putting to sea from Scythia,<SPAN id="noteref_29" name="noteref_29" href= "#note_29"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">29</span></span></SPAN> as is reported, in a few ships of war, and being driven by the winds beyond the bounds of Britain, came to Ireland and landed on its northern shores. There, finding the nation of the Scots, they begged to be allowed to settle among them, but could not succeed in obtaining their request. Ireland is the largest island next to Britain, and lies to the west of it; but as it is shorter than Britain to the north, so, on the other hand, it runs out far beyond it to the south, over against the northern part of Spain, though a wide sea lies between them. The Picts then, as has been said, arriving in this island by sea, desired to have a place granted them in which they might settle. The Scots answered that the island could not contain them both; but <span class="tei tei-q">“We can give you good counsel,”</span> said they, <span class= "tei tei-q">“whereby you may know what to do; we know there is another island, not far from ours, to the eastward, which we often see at a distance, when the days are clear. If you will go thither, you can obtain settlements; or, if any should oppose you, we will help you.”</span> The Picts, accordingly, sailing over into Britain, began to inhabit the northern parts <span class= "tei tei-pb" id="page008">[pg 008]</span><SPAN name="Pg008" id="Pg008" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> thereof, for the Britons had possessed themselves of the southern. Now the Picts had no wives, and asked them of the Scots; who would not consent to grant them upon any other terms, than that when any question should arise, they should choose a king from the female royal race rather than from the male: which custom, as is well known, has been observed among the Picts to this day.<SPAN id="noteref_30" name="noteref_30" href= "#note_30"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">30</span></span></SPAN> In process of time, Britain, besides the Britons and the Picts, received a third nation, the Scots, who, migrating from Ireland under their leader, Reuda, either by fair means, or by force of arms, secured to themselves those settlements among the Picts which they still possess. From the name of their commander, they are to this day called Dalreudini; for, in their language, Dal signifies a part.<SPAN id="noteref_31" name="noteref_31" href= "#note_31"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">31</span></span></SPAN></p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Ireland is broader than Britain and has a much healthier and milder climate; for the snow scarcely ever lies there above three days: no man makes hay in the summer for winter's provision, or builds stables for his beasts of burden. No reptiles are found there, and no snake can live there; for, though snakes are often carried thither out of Britain, as soon as the ship comes near the shore, and the scent of the air reaches them, they die. On the contrary, almost all things in the island are efficacious against poison. In truth, we have known that when men have been bitten by serpents, the scrapings of leaves of books that were brought out of Ireland, being put into water, and given them to drink, have immediately absorbed the spreading poison, and assuaged the swelling.</p><span class= "tei tei-pb" id="page009">[pg 009]</span><SPAN name="Pg009" id="Pg009" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">The island abounds in milk and honey, nor is there any lack of vines, fish, or fowl; and it is noted for the hunting of stags and roe-deer. It is properly the country of the Scots, who, migrating from thence, as has been said, formed the third nation in Britain in addition to the Britons and the Picts.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">There is a very large gulf of the sea, which formerly divided the nation of the Britons from the Picts; it runs from the west far into the land, where, to this day, stands a strong city of the Britons, called Alcluith.<SPAN id="noteref_32" name="noteref_32" href= "#note_32"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">32</span></span></SPAN> The Scots, arriving on the north side of this bay, settled themselves there.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc15" id="toc15"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf16" id="pdf16"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_II" id="Book_I_Chap_II" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. II. How Caius Julius Caesar was the first Roman that came into Britain.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Now Britain had never been visited by the Romans, and was entirely unknown to them before the time of Caius Julius Caesar, who, in the year 693 after the foundation of Rome, but the sixtieth year<SPAN id="noteref_33" name="noteref_33" href="#note_33"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">33</span></span></SPAN> before the Incarnation of our Lord, was consul with Lucius Bibulus. While he was making war upon the Germans and the Gauls, who were divided only by the river Rhine, he came into the province of the Morini, whence is the nearest and shortest passage into Britain. Here, having provided about eighty ships of burden and fast-sailing vessels, he sailed over into Britain; where, being first roughly handled in a battle, and then caught in a storm, he lost a considerable part of his fleet, no small number of foot-soldiers, and almost all his cavalry. Returning into Gaul, he put his legions into winter-quarters, and gave orders for building six hundred sail of both sorts. With these he again crossed over early in spring into Britain, but, whilst he was marching with the army against the enemy, the ships, riding at anchor, were caught in a storm and either dashed one against another, or driven upon the sands and wrecked. Forty of them were lost, the rest <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page010">[pg 010]</span><SPAN name="Pg010" id="Pg010" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> were, with much difficulty, repaired. Caesar's cavalry was, at the first encounter, defeated by the Britons, and there Labienus, the tribune, was slain. In the second engagement, with great hazard to his men, he defeated the Britons and put them to flight. Thence he proceeded to the river Thames, where a great multitude of the enemy had posted themselves on the farther side of the river, under the command of Cassobellaunus,<SPAN id="noteref_34" name="noteref_34" href= "#note_34"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">34</span></span></SPAN> and fenced the bank of the river and almost all the ford under water with sharp stakes: the remains of these are to be seen to this day, apparently about the thickness of a man's thigh, cased with lead, and fixed immovably in the bottom of the river. This being perceived and avoided by the Romans, the barbarians, not able to stand the charge of the legions, hid themselves in the woods, whence they grievously harassed the Romans with repeated sallies. In the meantime, the strong state of the Trinovantes,<SPAN id= "noteref_35" name="noteref_35" href="#note_35"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">35</span></span></SPAN> with their commander Androgius,<SPAN id="noteref_36" name="noteref_36" href="#note_36"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">36</span></span></SPAN> surrendered to Caesar, giving him forty hostages. Many other cities, following their example, made a treaty with the Romans. Guided by them, Caesar at length, after severe fighting, took the town of Cassobellaunus,<SPAN id="noteref_37" name="noteref_37" href= "#note_37"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">37</span></span></SPAN> situated between two marshes, fortified by sheltering woods, and plentifully furnished with all necessaries. After this, Caesar returned from Britain into Gaul, but he had no sooner put his legions into winter quarters, than he was suddenly beset and distracted with wars and sudden risings on every side.</p> </div><span class="tei tei-pb" id="page011">[pg 011]</span><SPAN name= "Pg011" id="Pg011" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc17" id="toc17"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf18" id="pdf18"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_III" id="Book_I_Chap_III" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. III. How Claudius, the second of the Romans who came into Britain, brought the islands Orcades into subjection to the Roman empire; and Vespasian, sent by him, reduced the Isle of Wight under the dominion of the Romans.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of Rome 798,<SPAN id="noteref_38" name="noteref_38" href= "#note_38"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">38</span></span></SPAN> Claudius, fourth emperor from Augustus, being desirous to approve himself a prince beneficial to the republic, and eagerly bent upon war and conquest on every side, undertook an expedition into Britain, which as it appeared, was roused to rebellion by the refusal of the Romans to give up certain deserters. No one before or after Julius Caesar had dared to land upon the island. Claudius crossed over to it, and within a very few days, without any fighting or bloodshed, the greater part of the island was surrendered into his hands. He also added to the Roman empire the Orcades,<SPAN id="noteref_39" name="noteref_39" href= "#note_39"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">39</span></span></SPAN> which lie in the ocean beyond Britain, and, returning to Rome in the sixth month after his departure, he gave his son the title of Britannicus. This war he concluded in the fourth year of his reign, which is the forty-sixth from the Incarnation of our Lord. In which year there came to pass a most grievous famine in Syria, which is recorded in the Acts of the Apostles to have been foretold by the prophet Agabus.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Vespasian,<SPAN id= "noteref_40" name="noteref_40" href="#note_40"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">40</span></span></SPAN> who was emperor after Nero, being sent into Britain by the same Claudius, brought also under the Roman dominion the Isle of Wight, which is close to Britain on the south, and is about thirty miles in length from east to west, and twelve from north to south; being six miles distant from the southern coast of Britain at the east end, and three at the west. Nero, succeeding Claudius in the empire, undertook no wars at all; and, therefore, among countless other disasters brought by him upon the Roman state, he almost lost Britain; for <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page012">[pg 012]</span><SPAN name="Pg012" id="Pg012" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> in his time two most notable towns were there taken and destroyed.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc19" id="toc19"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf20" id="pdf20"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_IV" id="Book_I_Chap_IV" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. IV. How Lucius, king of Britain, writing to Pope Eleutherus, desired to be made a Christian.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of our Lord 156, Marcus Antoninus Verus,<SPAN id="noteref_41" name= "noteref_41" href="#note_41"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">41</span></span></SPAN> the fourteenth from Augustus, was made emperor, together with his brother, Aurelius Commodus. In their time, whilst the holy Eleutherus presided over the Roman Church, Lucius, king of Britain, sent a letter to him, entreating that by a mandate from him he might be made a Christian.<SPAN id="noteref_42" name="noteref_42" href="#note_42"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">42</span></span></SPAN> He soon obtained his pious request, and the Britons preserved the faith, which they had received, uncorrupted and entire, in peace and tranquillity until the time of the Emperor Diocletian.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc21" id="toc21"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf22" id="pdf22"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_V" id="Book_I_Chap_V" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. V. How the Emperor Severus divided from the rest by a rampart that part of Britain which had been recovered.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of our Lord 189, Severus, an African, born at Leptis, in the province of Tripolis, became emperor.<SPAN id="noteref_43" name="noteref_43" href="#note_43"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">43</span></span></SPAN> He was the seventeenth from Augustus, and reigned seventeen years. Being naturally of a harsh disposition, and engaged in many wars, he governed the state vigorously, but with much trouble. Having been victorious in all the grievous civil wars which happened in his time, he was drawn into Britain by the revolt of almost all the confederated tribes; and, after many great and severe battles, he thought fit to divide that part of the island, which he had recovered, from the other unconquered nations, not <span class= "tei tei-pb" id="page013">[pg 013]</span><SPAN name="Pg013" id="Pg013" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> with a wall, as some imagine, but with a rampart.<SPAN id="noteref_44" name="noteref_44" href= "#note_44"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">44</span></span></SPAN> For a wall is made of stones, but a rampart, with which camps are fortified to repel the assaults of enemies, is made of sods, cut out of the earth, and raised high above the ground, like a wall, having in front of it the trench whence the sods were taken, with strong stakes of wood fixed above it. Thus Severus drew a great trench and strong rampart, fortified with several towers, from sea to sea. And there, at York, he fell sick afterwards and died, leaving two sons, Bassianus and Geta;<SPAN id="noteref_45" name= "noteref_45" href="#note_45"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">45</span></span></SPAN> of whom Geta died, adjudged an enemy of the State; but Bassianus, having taken the surname of Antonius, obtained the empire.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc23" id="toc23"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf24" id="pdf24"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_VI" id="Book_I_Chap_VI" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. VI. Of the reign of Diocletian, and how he persecuted the Christians.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of our Lord 286,<SPAN id="noteref_46" name="noteref_46" href= "#note_46"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">46</span></span></SPAN> Diocletian, the thirty-third from Augustus, and chosen emperor by the army, reigned twenty years, and created Maximian, surnamed Herculius, his colleague in the empire. In their time, one Carausius,<SPAN id="noteref_47" name="noteref_47" href= "#note_47"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">47</span></span></SPAN> of very mean birth, but a man of great ability and energy, being appointed to guard the sea-coasts, then infested by the Franks and Saxons, acted more to the prejudice than to the advantage of the commonwealth, by not restoring to its owners any of the booty taken <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page014">[pg 014]</span><SPAN name= "Pg014" id="Pg014" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> from the robbers, but keeping all to himself; thus giving rise to the suspicion that by intentional neglect he suffered the enemy to infest the frontiers. When, therefore, an order was sent by Maximian that he should be put to death, he took upon him the imperial purple, and possessed himself of Britain, and having most valiantly conquered and held it for the space of seven years, he was at length put to death by the treachery of his associate Allectus.<SPAN id="noteref_48" name="noteref_48" href="#note_48"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">48</span></span></SPAN> The usurper, having thus got the island from Carausius, held it three years, and was then vanquished by Asclepiodotus,<SPAN id="noteref_49" name="noteref_49" href="#note_49"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">49</span></span></SPAN> the captain of the Praetorian guards, who thus at the end of ten years restored Britain to the Roman empire.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Meanwhile, Diocletian in the east, and Maximian Herculius in the west, commanded the churches to be destroyed, and the Christians to be persecuted and slain. This persecution was the tenth since the reign of Nero, and was more lasting and cruel than almost any before it; for it was carried on incessantly for the space of ten years, with burning of churches, proscription of innocent persons, and the slaughter of martyrs. Finally, Britain also attained to the great glory of bearing faithful witness to God.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc25" id="toc25"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf26" id="pdf26"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. VII. The Passion of St. Alban and his companions, who at that time shed their blood for our Lord.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">At that time suffered St. Alban,<SPAN id="noteref_50" name="noteref_50" href= "#note_50"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">50</span></span></SPAN> of whom the priest Fortunatus,<SPAN id="noteref_51" name="noteref_51" href="#note_51"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">51</span></span></SPAN> in the Praise of Virgins, where he makes <span class="tei tei-pb" id= "page015">[pg 015]</span><SPAN name="Pg015" id="Pg015" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> mention of the blessed martyrs that came to the Lord from all parts of the world, says:</p> <div class="block tei tei-quote" style= "margin-bottom: 1.80em; margin-left: 3.60em; margin-top: 1.80em; margin-right: 3.60em"> <div class="tei tei-lg" style= "margin-bottom: 0.90em; margin-top: 0.90em"> <div class="tei tei-l" style="text-align: left"> <span style="font-size: 90%">And fruitful Britain noble Alban rears.</span> </div> </div> </div> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">This Alban, being yet a pagan, at the time when at the bidding of unbelieving rulers all manner of cruelty was practised against the Christians, gave entertainment in his house to a certain clerk,<SPAN id= "noteref_52" name="noteref_52" href="#note_52"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">52</span></span></SPAN> flying from his persecutors. This man he observed to be engaged in continual prayer and watching day and night; when on a sudden the Divine grace shining on him, he began to imitate the example of faith and piety which was set before him, and being gradually instructed by his wholesome admonitions, he cast off the darkness of idolatry, and became a Christian in all sincerity of heart. The aforesaid clerk having been some days entertained by him, it came to the ears of the impious prince, that a confessor of Christ, to whom a martyr's place had not yet been assigned, was concealed at Alban's house. Whereupon he sent some soldiers to make a strict search after him. When they came to the martyr's hut, St. Alban presently came forth to the soldiers, instead of his guest and master, in the habit or long coat which he wore, and was bound and led before the judge.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">It happened that the judge, at the time when Alban was carried before him, was standing at the altar, and offering sacrifice to devils. When he saw Alban, being much enraged that he should thus, of his own accord, dare to put himself into the hands of the soldiers, and incur such danger on behalf of the guest whom he had harboured, he commanded him to be dragged to the images of the devils, before which he stood, saying, <span class="tei tei-q">“Because you have chosen to conceal a rebellious and sacrilegious man, rather than to deliver him up to the soldiers, that his contempt of the gods might meet with the penalty due to such blasphemy, you shall undergo all <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page016">[pg 016]</span><SPAN name= "Pg016" id="Pg016" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> the punishment that was due to him, if you seek to abandon the worship of our religion.”</span> But St. Alban, who had voluntarily declared himself a Christian to the persecutors of the faith, was not at all daunted by the prince's threats, but putting on the armour of spiritual warfare, publicly declared that he would not obey his command. Then said the judge, <span class="tei tei-q">“Of what family or race are you?”</span>—<span class="tei tei-q">“What does it concern you,”</span> answered Alban, <span class="tei tei-q">“of what stock I am? If you desire to hear the truth of my religion, be it known to you, that I am now a Christian, and free to fulfil Christian duties.”</span>—<span class="tei tei-q">“I ask your name,”</span> said the judge; <span class="tei tei-q">“tell me it immediately.”</span>—<span class="tei tei-q">“I am called Alban by my parents,”</span> replied he; <span class="tei tei-q">“and I worship ever and adore the true and living God, Who created all things.”</span> Then the judge, filled with anger, said, <span class="tei tei-q">“If you would enjoy the happiness of eternal life, do not delay to offer sacrifice to the great gods.”</span> Alban rejoined, <span class="tei tei-q">“These sacrifices, which by you are offered to devils, neither can avail the worshippers, nor fulfil the desires and petitions of the suppliants. Rather, whosoever shall offer sacrifice to these images, shall receive the everlasting pains of hell for his reward.”</span></p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">The judge, hearing these words, and being much incensed, ordered this holy confessor of God to be scourged by the executioners, believing that he might by stripes shake that constancy of heart, on which he could not prevail by words. He, being most cruelly tortured, bore the same patiently, or rather joyfully, for our Lord's sake. When the judge perceived that he was not to be overcome by tortures, or withdrawn from the exercise of the Christian religion, he ordered him to be put to death. Being led to execution, he came to a river, which, with a most rapid course, ran between the wall of the town and the arena where he was to be executed.<SPAN id="noteref_53" name= "noteref_53" href="#note_53"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">53</span></span></SPAN> He there saw a great multitude of persons of both sexes, and of divers ages and conditions, who were doubtless assembled by Divine inspiration, to attend the blessed confessor and martyr, <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page017">[pg 017]</span><SPAN name= "Pg017" id="Pg017" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> and had so filled the bridge over the river, that he could scarce pass over that evening. In truth, almost all had gone out, so that the judge remained in the city without attendance. St. Alban, therefore, urged by an ardent and devout wish to attain the sooner to martyrdom, drew near to the stream, and lifted up his eyes to heaven, whereupon the channel was immediately dried up, and he perceived that the water had given place and made way for him to pass. Among the rest, the executioner, who should have put him to death, observed this, and moved doubtless by Divine inspiration hastened to meet him at the appointed place of execution, and casting away the sword which he had carried ready drawn, fell at his feet, praying earnestly that he might rather be accounted worthy to suffer with the martyr, whom he was ordered to execute, or, if possible, instead of him.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Whilst he was thus changed from a persecutor into a companion in the faith and truth, and the other executioners rightly hesitated to take up the sword which was lying on the ground, the holy confessor, accompanied by the multitude, ascended a hill, about half a mile from the arena, beautiful, as was fitting, and of most pleasing appearance, adorned, or rather clothed, everywhere with flowers of many colours, nowhere steep or precipitous or of sheer descent, but with a long, smooth natural slope, like a plain, on its sides, a place altogether worthy from of old, by reason of its native beauty, to be consecrated by the blood of a blessed martyr. On the top of this hill, St. Alban prayed that God would give him water, and immediately a living spring, confined in its channel, sprang up at his feet, so that all men acknowledged that even the stream had yielded its service to the martyr. For it was impossible that the martyr, who had left no water remaining in the river, should desire it on the top of the hill, unless he thought it fitting. The river then having done service and fulfilled the pious duty, returned to its natural course, leaving a testimony of its obedience.<SPAN id= "noteref_54" name="noteref_54" href="#note_54"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">54</span></span></SPAN> Here, therefore, the head of the undaunted martyr was <span class= "tei tei-pb" id="page018">[pg 018]</span><SPAN name="Pg018" id="Pg018" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> struck off, and here he received the crown of life, which God has promised to them that love him. But he who laid impious hands on the holy man's neck was not permitted to rejoice over his dead body; for his eyes dropped upon the ground at the same moment as the blessed martyr's head fell.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">At the same time was also beheaded the soldier, who before, through the Divine admonition, refused to strike the holy confessor. Of whom it is apparent, that though he was not purified by the waters of baptism, yet he was cleansed by the washing of his own blood, and rendered worthy to enter the kingdom of heaven. Then the judge, astonished at the unwonted sight of so many heavenly miracles, ordered the persecution to cease immediately, and began to honour the death of the saints, by which he once thought that they might have been turned from their zeal for the Christian faith. The blessed Alban suffered death on the twenty-second day of June, near the city of Verulam,<SPAN id="noteref_55" name="noteref_55" href= "#note_55"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">55</span></span></SPAN> which is now by the English nation called Verlamacaestir, or Vaeclingacaestir, where afterwards, when peaceable Christian times were restored, a church of wonderful workmanship, and altogether worthy to commemorate his martyrdom, was erected.<SPAN id="noteref_56" name="noteref_56" href="#note_56"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">56</span></span></SPAN> In which place the cure of sick persons and the frequent working of wonders cease not to this day.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">At that time suffered Aaron and Julius,<SPAN id="noteref_57" name="noteref_57" href="#note_57"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">57</span></span></SPAN> citizens of the City of Legions,<SPAN id="noteref_58" name= "noteref_58" href="#note_58"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">58</span></span></SPAN> and many more of both sexes in divers places; who, after that they had endured sundry torments, and their limbs had been mangled after an unheard-of <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page019">[pg 019]</span><SPAN name="Pg019" id="Pg019" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> manner, when their warfare was accomplished, yielded their souls up to the joys of the heavenly city.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc27" id="toc27"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf28" id="pdf28"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_VIII" id="Book_I_Chap_VIII" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. VIII. How, when the persecution ceased, the Church in Britain enjoyed peace till the time of the Arian heresy.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">When the storm of persecution ceased, the faithful Christians, who, during the time of danger, had hidden themselves in woods and deserts and secret caves, came forth and rebuilt the churches which had been levelled to the ground; founded, erected, and finished the cathedrals raised in honour of the holy martyrs, and, as if displaying their conquering standards in all places, celebrated festivals and performed their sacred rites with pure hearts and lips. This peace continued in the Christian churches of Britain until the time of the Arian madness, which, having corrupted the whole world, infected this island also, so far removed from the rest of the world, with the poison of its error; and when once a way was opened across the sea for that plague, straightway all the taint of every heresy fell upon the island, ever desirous to hear some new thing, and never holding firm to any sure belief.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">At this time Constantius, who, whilst Diocletian was alive, governed Gaul and Spain, a man of great clemency and urbanity, died in Britain. This man left his son Constantine,<SPAN id="noteref_59" name="noteref_59" href="#note_59"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">59</span></span></SPAN> born of Helena, his concubine, emperor of the Gauls. Eutropius writes that Constantine, being created emperor in Britain, succeeded his father in the sovereignty. In his time the Arian heresy broke out, and although it was exposed and condemned in the Council of Nicaea,<SPAN id="noteref_60" name="noteref_60" href= "#note_60"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">60</span></span></SPAN> nevertheless, the deadly poison of its evil spread, <span class= "tei tei-pb" id="page020">[pg 020]</span><SPAN name="Pg020" id="Pg020" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> as has been said, to the Churches in the islands, as well as to those of the rest of the world.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em">
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