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Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England

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<SPAN name="toc29" id="toc29"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf30" id="pdf30"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_IX" id="Book_I_Chap_IX" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. IX. How during the reign of Gratian, Maximus, being created Emperor in Britain, returned into Gaul with a mighty army.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of our Lord 377,<SPAN id="noteref_61" name="noteref_61" href= "#note_61"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">61</span></span></SPAN> Gratian, the fortieth from Augustus, held the empire for six years after the death of Valens; though he had long before reigned with his uncle Valens, and his brother Valentinian. Finding the condition of the commonwealth much impaired, and almost gone to ruin, and impelled by the necessity of restoring it, he invested the Spaniard, Theodosius, with the purple at Sirmium, and made him emperor of Thrace and the Eastern provinces. At that time, Maximus,<SPAN id="noteref_62" name="noteref_62" href= "#note_62"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">62</span></span></SPAN> a man of energy and probity, and worthy of the title of Augustus, if he had not broken his oath of allegiance, was made emperor by the army somewhat against his will, passed over into Gaul, and there by treachery slew the Emperor Gratian, who in consternation at his sudden invasion, was attempting to escape into Italy. His brother, the Emperor Valentinian, expelled from Italy, fled into the East, where he was entertained by Theodosius with fatherly affection, and soon restored to the empire, for Maximus the tyrant, being shut up in Aquileia, was there taken by them and put to death.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc31" id="toc31"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf32" id="pdf32"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_X" id="Book_I_Chap_X" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. X. How, in the reign of Arcadius, Pelagius, a Briton, insolently impugned the Grace of God.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of our Lord 394,<SPAN id="noteref_63" name="noteref_63" href= "#note_63"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">63</span></span></SPAN> Arcadius, the son of Theodosius, the forty-third from Augustus, succeeding to <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page021">[pg 021]</span><SPAN name="Pg021" id="Pg021" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> the empire, with his brother Honorius, held it thirteen years. In his time, Pelagius,<SPAN id="noteref_64" name="noteref_64" href= "#note_64"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">64</span></span></SPAN> a Briton, spread far and near the infection of his perfidious doctrine, denying the assistance of the Divine grace, being seconded therein by his associate Julianus of Campania,<SPAN id= "noteref_65" name="noteref_65" href="#note_65"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">65</span></span></SPAN> who was impelled by an uncontrolled desire to recover his bishopric, of which he had been deprived. St. Augustine, and the other orthodox fathers, quoted many thousand catholic authorities against them, but failed to amend their folly; nay, more, their madness being rebuked was rather increased by contradiction than suffered by them to be purified through adherence to the truth; which Prosper, the rhetorician,<SPAN id="noteref_66" name="noteref_66" href= "#note_66"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">66</span></span></SPAN> has beautifully expressed thus in heroic<SPAN id="noteref_67" name= "noteref_67" href="#note_67"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">67</span></span></SPAN> verse:—</p> <div class="block tei tei-quote" style= "margin-bottom: 1.80em; margin-left: 3.60em; margin-top: 1.80em; margin-right: 3.60em"> <span style="font-size: 90%">They tell that one, erewhile consumed with gnawing spite, snake-like attacked Augustine in his writings. Who urged the wretched viper to raise from the ground his head, howsoever hidden in dens of darkness? Either the sea-girt Britons reared him with the fruit of their soil, or fed on Campanian pastures his heart swells with pride.</span> </div> </div><span class="tei tei-pb" id="page022">[pg 022]</span><SPAN name= "Pg022" id="Pg022" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc33" id="toc33"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf34" id="pdf34"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_XI" id="Book_I_Chap_XI" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. XI. How during the reign of Honorius, Gratian and Constantine were created tyrants in Britain; and soon after the former was slain in Britain, and the latter in Gaul.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of our Lord 407,<SPAN id="noteref_68" name="noteref_68" href= "#note_68"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">68</span></span></SPAN> Honorius, the younger son of Theodosius, and the forty-fourth from Augustus, being emperor, two years before the invasion of Rome by Alaric, king of the Goths, when the nations of the Alani, Suevi, Vandals, and many others with them, having defeated the Franks and passed the Rhine, ravaged all Gaul, Gratianus, a citizen of the country, was set up as tyrant in Britain and killed. In his place, Constantine, one of the meanest soldiers, only for the hope afforded by his name, and without any worth to recommend him, was chosen emperor. As soon as he had taken upon him the command, he crossed over into Gaul, where being often imposed upon by the barbarians with untrustworthy treaties, he did more harm than good to the Commonwealth.<SPAN id="noteref_69" name="noteref_69" href= "#note_69"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">69</span></span></SPAN> Whereupon Count Constantius,<SPAN id="noteref_70" name="noteref_70" href="#note_70"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">70</span></span></SPAN> by the command of Honorius, marching into Gaul with an army, besieged him in the city of Arles, took him prisoner, and put him to death. His son Constans, a monk, whom he had created Caesar, was also put to death by his own follower Count Gerontius,<SPAN id="noteref_71" name= "noteref_71" href="#note_71"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">71</span></span></SPAN> at Vienne.</p><span class="tei tei-pb" id="page023">[pg 023]</span><SPAN name="Pg023" id="Pg023" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Rome was taken by the Goths, in the year from its foundation, 1164.<SPAN id= "noteref_72" name="noteref_72" href="#note_72"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">72</span></span></SPAN> Then the Romans ceased to rule in Britain, almost 470 years after Caius Julius Caesar came to the island. They dwelt within the rampart, which, as we have mentioned, Severus made across the island, on the south side of it, as the cities, watch-towers,<SPAN id="noteref_73" name="noteref_73" href="#note_73"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">73</span></span></SPAN> bridges, and paved roads there made testify to this day; but they had a right of dominion over the farther parts of Britain, as also over the islands that are beyond Britain.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc35" id="toc35"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf36" id="pdf36"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_XII" id="Book_I_Chap_XII" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. XII. How the Britons, being ravaged by the Scots and Picts, sought succour from the Romans, who coming a second time, built a wall across the island; but when this was broken down at once by the aforesaid enemies, they were reduced to greater distress than before.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">From that time, the British part of Britain, destitute of armed soldiers, of all military stores, and of the whole flower of its active youth, who had been led away by the rashness of the tyrants never to return, was wholly exposed to rapine, the people being altogether ignorant of the use of weapons. Whereupon they suffered many years from the sudden invasions of two very savage nations from beyond the sea, the Scots from the west, and the Picts from the north. We call these nations from beyond the sea, not on account of their being seated out of Britain, but because they were separated from that part of it which was possessed by the Britons, two broad and long inlets of the sea lying between them, one of which runs into the interior of Britain, from the Eastern Sea, and the other from the Western, though they do not reach so far as to touch one another. The eastern has in the midst of it the city Giudi.<SPAN id= "noteref_74" name="noteref_74" href="#note_74"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">74</span></span></SPAN> On the Western Sea, that is, <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page024">[pg 024]</span><SPAN name="Pg024" id="Pg024" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> on its right shore, stands the city of Alcluith,<SPAN id="noteref_75" name="noteref_75" href="#note_75"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">75</span></span></SPAN> which in their language signifies the Rock Cluith, for it is close by the river of that name.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">On account of the attacks of these nations, the Britons sent messengers to Rome with letters piteously praying for succour, and promising perpetual subjection, provided that the impending enemy should be driven away. An armed legion was immediately sent them, which, arriving in the island, and engaging the enemy, slew a great multitude of them, drove the rest out of the territories of their allies, and having in the meanwhile delivered them from their worst distress, advised them to build a wall between the two seas across the island, that it might secure them by keeping off the enemy. So they returned home with great triumph. But the islanders building the wall which they had been told to raise, not of stone, since they had no workmen capable of such a work, but of sods, made it of no use. Nevertheless, they carried it for many miles between the two bays or inlets of the sea of which we have spoken;<SPAN id="noteref_76" name="noteref_76" href="#note_76"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">76</span></span></SPAN> to the end that where the protection of the water was wanting, they might use the rampart to defend their borders from the irruptions of the enemies. Of the work there erected, that is, of a rampart of great breadth and height, there are evident remains to be seen at this day. It begins at about two miles' distance from the monastery of Aebbercurnig,<SPAN id="noteref_77" name="noteref_77" href= "#note_77"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">77</span></span></SPAN> west of it, at a place called in the Pictish language Peanfahel,<SPAN id= "noteref_78" name="noteref_78" href="#note_78"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">78</span></span></SPAN> but in the English tongue, Penneltun, <span class="tei tei-pb" id= "page025">[pg 025]</span><SPAN name="Pg025" id="Pg025" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> and running westward, ends near the city of Alcluith.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">But the former enemies, when they perceived that the Roman soldiers were gone, immediately coming by sea, broke into the borders, trampled and overran all places, and like men mowing ripe corn, bore down all before them. Hereupon messengers were again sent to Rome miserably imploring aid, lest their wretched country should be utterly blotted out, and the name of a Roman province, so long renowned among them, overthrown by the cruelties of foreign races, might become utterly contemptible. A legion was accordingly sent again, and, arriving unexpectedly in autumn, made great slaughter of the enemy, obliging all those that could escape, to flee beyond the sea; whereas before, they were wont yearly to carry off their booty without any opposition. Then the Romans declared to the Britons, that they could not for the future undertake such troublesome expeditions for their sake, and advised them rather to take up arms and make an effort to engage their enemies, who could not prove too powerful for them, unless they themselves were enervated by cowardice. Moreover, thinking that it might be some help to the allies, whom they were forced to abandon, they constructed a strong stone wall from sea to sea, in a straight line between the towns that had been there built for fear of the enemy, where Severus also had formerly built a rampart.<SPAN id="noteref_79" name="noteref_79" href="#note_79"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">79</span></span></SPAN> This famous wall, which is still to be seen, was raised at public and private expense, the Britons also lending their assistance. It is eight feet in breadth, and twelve in height, in a straight line from east to west, as is still evident to <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page026">[pg 026]</span><SPAN name="Pg026" id="Pg026" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> beholders. This being presently finished, they gave the dispirited people good advice, and showed them how to furnish themselves with arms. Besides, they built towers to command a view of the sea, at intervals, on the southern coast, where their ships lay, because there also the invasions of the barbarians were apprehended, and so took leave of their allies, never to return again.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">After their departure to their own country, the Scots and Picts, understanding that they had refused to return, at once came back, and growing more confident than they had been before, occupied all the northern and farthest part of the island, driving out the natives, as far as the wall. Hereupon a timorous guard was placed upon the fortification, where, dazed with fear, they became ever more dispirited day by day. On the other side, the enemy constantly attacked them with barbed weapons, by which the cowardly defenders were dragged in piteous fashion from the wall, and dashed against the ground. At last, the Britons, forsaking their cities and wall, took to flight and were scattered. The enemy pursued, and forthwith followed a massacre more grievous than ever before; for the wretched natives were torn in pieces by their enemies, as lambs are torn by wild beasts. Thus, being expelled from their dwellings and lands, they saved themselves from the immediate danger of starvation by robbing and plundering one another, adding to the calamities inflicted by the enemy their own domestic broils, till the whole country was left destitute of food except such as could be procured in the chase.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc37" id="toc37"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf38" id="pdf38"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_XIII" id="Book_I_Chap_XIII" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. XIII. How in the reign of Theodosius the younger, in whose time Palladius was sent to the Scots that believed in Christ, the Britons begging assistance of Ætius, the consul, could not obtain it. [446</span> <span class= "tei tei-hi" style="text-align: left"><span style= "font-size: 144%; font-variant: small-caps">a.d.</span></span><span style="font-size: 144%">]</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of our Lord 423, Theodosius, the younger, the forty-fifth from Augustus, succeeded Honorius and governed the Roman empire twenty-six years. In the <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page027">[pg 027]</span><SPAN name="Pg027" id="Pg027" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> eighth year of his reign,<SPAN id="noteref_80" name="noteref_80" href= "#note_80"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">80</span></span></SPAN> Palladius was sent by Celestinus, the Roman pontiff, to the Scots that believed in Christ, to be their first bishop. In the twenty-third year of his reign, Aetius,<SPAN id="noteref_81" name= "noteref_81" href="#note_81"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">81</span></span></SPAN> a man of note and a patrician, discharged his third consulship with Symmachus for his colleague. To him the wretched remnant of the Britons sent a letter, which began thus:—<span class= "tei tei-q">“To Aetius, thrice Consul, the groans of the Britons.”</span> And in the sequel of the letter they thus unfolded their woes:—<span class="tei tei-q">“The barbarians drive us to the sea; the sea drives us back to the barbarians: between them we are exposed to two sorts of death; we are either slaughtered or drowned.”</span> Yet, for all this, they could not obtain any help from him, as he was then engaged in most serious wars with Bledla and Attila, kings of the Huns. And though the year before this<SPAN id="noteref_82" name="noteref_82" href= "#note_82"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">82</span></span></SPAN> Bledla had been murdered by the treachery of his own brother Attila, yet Attila himself remained so intolerable an enemy to the Republic, that he ravaged almost all Europe, attacking and destroying cities and castles. At the same time there was a famine at Constantinople, and soon after a plague followed; moreover, a great part of the wall of that city, with fifty-seven towers, fell to the ground. Many cities also went to ruin, and the famine and pestilential state of the air destroyed thousands of men and cattle.</p> </div><span class="tei tei-pb" id="page028">[pg 028]</span><SPAN name= "Pg028" id="Pg028" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc39" id="toc39"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf40" id="pdf40"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. XIV. How the Britons, compelled by the great famine, drove the barbarians out of their territories; and soon after there ensued, along with abundance of corn, decay of morals, pestilence, and the downfall of the nation.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the meantime, the aforesaid famine distressing the Britons more and more, and leaving to posterity a lasting memory of its mischievous effects, obliged many of them to submit themselves to the depredators; though others still held out, putting their trust in God, when human help failed. These continually made raids from the mountains, caves, and woods, and, at length, began to inflict severe losses on their enemies, who had been for so many years plundering the country. The bold Irish robbers thereupon returned home, intending to come again before long. The Picts then settled down in the farthest part of the island and afterwards remained there, but they did not fail to plunder and harass the Britons from time to time.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Now, when the ravages of the enemy at length abated, the island began to abound with such plenty of grain as had never been known in any age before; along with plenty, evil living increased, and this was immediately attended by the taint of all manner of crime; in particular, cruelty, hatred of truth, and love of falsehood; insomuch, that if any one among them happened to be milder than the rest, and more inclined to truth, all the rest abhorred and persecuted him unrestrainedly, as if he had been the enemy of Britain. Nor were the laity only guilty of these things, but even our Lord's own flock, with its shepherds, casting off the easy yoke of Christ, gave themselves up to drunkenness, enmity, quarrels, strife, envy, and other such sins. In the meantime, on a sudden, a grievous plague fell upon that corrupt generation, which soon destroyed such numbers of them, that the living scarcely availed to bury the dead: yet, those that survived, could not be recalled from the spiritual death, which they had incurred through their <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page029">[pg 029]</span><SPAN name= "Pg029" id="Pg029" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> sins, either by the death of their friends, or the fear of death. Whereupon, not long after, a more severe vengeance for their fearful crimes fell upon the sinful nation. They held a council to determine what was to be done, and where they should seek help to prevent or repel the cruel and frequent incursions of the northern nations; and in concert with their King Vortigern,<SPAN id="noteref_83" name="noteref_83" href="#note_83"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">83</span></span></SPAN> it was unanimously decided to call the Saxons to their aid from beyond the sea, which, as the event plainly showed, was brought about by the Lord's will, that evil might fall upon them for their wicked deeds.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc41" id="toc41"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf42" id="pdf42"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_XV" id="Book_I_Chap_XV" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. XV. How the Angles, being invited into Britain, at first drove off the enemy; but not long after, making a league with them, turned their weapons against their allies.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of our Lord 449,<SPAN id="noteref_84" name="noteref_84" href= "#note_84"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">84</span></span></SPAN> Marcian, the forty-sixth from Augustus, being made emperor with Valentinian, ruled the empire seven years. Then the nation of the Angles, or Saxons,<SPAN id="noteref_85" name="noteref_85" href= "#note_85"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">85</span></span></SPAN> being invited by the aforesaid king,<SPAN id="noteref_86" name="noteref_86" href="#note_86"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">86</span></span></SPAN> arrived in Britain with three ships of war and had a place in which to settle assigned to them by the same king, in the eastern part of the island, on the pretext of fighting in defence of their country, whilst their real intentions were to conquer it. Accordingly they engaged with the enemy, who were come from the north to give battle, and the Saxons obtained the victory. When the news of their success and of the fertility of the country, and the cowardice of the Britons, reached their own home, a <span class="tei tei-pb" id= "page030">[pg 030]</span><SPAN name="Pg030" id="Pg030" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> more considerable fleet was quickly sent over, bringing a greater number of men, and these, being added to the former army, made up an invincible force. The newcomers received of the Britons a place to inhabit among them, upon condition that they should wage war against their enemies for the peace and security of the country, whilst the Britons agreed to furnish them with pay. Those who came over were of the three most powerful nations of Germany—Saxons, Angles, and Jutes. From the Jutes are descended the people of Kent, and of the Isle of Wight, including those in the province of the West-Saxons who are to this day called Jutes, seated opposite to the Isle of Wight. From the Saxons, that is, the country which is now called Old Saxony, came the East-Saxons, the South-Saxons, and the West-Saxons. From the Angles, that is, the country which is called Angulus,<SPAN id= "noteref_87" name="noteref_87" href="#note_87"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">87</span></span></SPAN> and which is said, from that time, to have remained desert to this day, between the provinces of the Jutes and the Saxons, are descended the East-Angles, the Midland-Angles, the Mercians, all the race of the Northumbrians, that is, of those nations that dwell on the north side of the river Humber, and the other nations of the Angles. The first commanders are said to have been the two brothers Hengist and Horsa. Of these Horsa was afterwards slain in battle by the Britons,<SPAN id="noteref_88" name="noteref_88" href= "#note_88"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">88</span></span></SPAN> and a monument, bearing his name, is still in existence in the eastern parts of Kent. They were the sons of Victgilsus, whose father was Vitta, son of Vecta, son of Woden; from whose stock the royal race of many provinces trace their descent. In a short time, swarms of the aforesaid nations came over into the island, and the foreigners began to increase so much, that they became a source of terror to the natives themselves <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page031">[pg 031]</span><SPAN name="Pg031" id="Pg031" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> who had invited them. Then, having on a sudden entered into league with the Picts, whom they had by this time repelled by force of arms, they began to turn their weapons against their allies. At first, they obliged them to furnish a greater quantity of provisions; and, seeking an occasion of quarrel, protested, that unless more plentiful supplies were brought them, they would break the league, and ravage all the island; nor were they backward in putting their threats into execution. In short, the fire kindled by the hands of the pagans, proved God's just vengeance for the crimes of the people; not unlike that which, being of old lighted by the Chaldeans, consumed the walls and all the buildings of Jerusalem. For here, too, through the agency of the pitiless conqueror, yet by the disposal of the just Judge, it ravaged all the neighbouring cities and country, spread the conflagration from the eastern to the western sea, without any opposition, and overran the whole face of the doomed island. Public as well as private buildings were overturned; the priests were everywhere slain before the altars; no respect was shown for office, the prelates with the people were destroyed with fire and sword; nor were there any left to bury those who had been thus cruelly slaughtered. Some of the miserable remnant, being taken in the mountains, were butchered in heaps. Others, spent with hunger, came forth and submitted themselves to the enemy, to undergo for the sake of food perpetual servitude, if they were not killed upon the spot. Some, with sorrowful hearts, fled beyond the seas. Others, remaining in their own country, led a miserable life of terror and anxiety of mind among the mountains, woods and crags.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc43" id="toc43"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf44" id="pdf44"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_XVI" id="Book_I_Chap_XVI" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. XVI. How the Britons obtained their first victory over the Angles, under the command of Ambrosius, a Roman.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">When the army of the enemy, having destroyed and dispersed the natives, had returned home to their own <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page032">[pg 032]</span><SPAN name="Pg032" id="Pg032" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> settlements,<SPAN id="noteref_89" name="noteref_89" href= "#note_89"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">89</span></span></SPAN> the Britons began by degrees to take heart, and gather strength, sallying out of the lurking places where they had concealed themselves, and with one accord imploring the Divine help, that they might not utterly be destroyed. They had at that time for their leader, Ambrosius Aurelianus,<SPAN id="noteref_90" name= "noteref_90" href="#note_90"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">90</span></span></SPAN> a man of worth, who alone, by chance, of the Roman nation had survived the storm, in which his parents, who were of the royal race, had perished. Under him the Britons revived, and offering battle to the victors, by the help of God, gained the victory. From that day, sometimes the natives, and sometimes their enemies, prevailed, till the year of the siege of Badon-hill,<SPAN id="noteref_91" name= "noteref_91" href="#note_91"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">91</span></span></SPAN> when they made no small slaughter of those enemies, about forty-four years after their arrival in England. But of this hereafter.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc45" id="toc45"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf46" id="pdf46"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_I_Chap_XVII" id="Book_I_Chap_XVII" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. XVII. How Germanus the Bishop, sailing into Britain with Lupus, first quelled the tempest of the sea, and afterwards that of the Pelagians, by Divine power. [429</span> <span class="tei tei-hi" style= "text-align: left"><span style= "font-size: 144%; font-variant: small-caps">a.d.</span></span><span style="font-size: 144%">]</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Some few years before their arrival, the Pelagian heresy, brought over by Agricola, the son of Severianus,<SPAN id="noteref_92" name= "noteref_92" href="#note_92"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">92</span></span></SPAN> a Pelagian bishop, had corrupted with its foul taint the faith of the Britons. But whereas they absolutely refused to embrace that perverse doctrine, and blaspheme the grace of Christ, yet were not able of themselves to confute the subtilty of the unholy belief by force of argument, <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page033">[pg 033]</span><SPAN name="Pg033" id="Pg033" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> they bethought them of wholesome counsels and determined to crave aid of the Gallican prelates in that spiritual warfare. Hereupon, these, having assembled a great synod, consulted together to determine what persons should be sent thither to sustain the faith, and by unanimous consent, choice was made of the apostolic prelates, Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre, and Lupus of Troyes,<SPAN id= "noteref_93" name="noteref_93" href="#note_93"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">93</span></span></SPAN> to go into Britain to confirm the people's faith in the grace of God. With ready zeal they complied with the request and commands of the Holy Church, and put to sea. The ship sped safely with favouring winds till they were halfway between the coast of Gaul and Britain. There on a sudden they were obstructed by the malevolence of demons, who were jealous that men of such eminence and piety should be sent to bring back the people to salvation. They raised storms, and darkened the sky with clouds. The sails could not support the fury of the winds, the sailors' skill was forced to give way, the ship was sustained by prayer, not by strength, and as it happened, their spiritual leader and bishop, being spent with weariness, had fallen asleep. Then, as if because resistance flagged, the tempest gathered strength, and the ship, overwhelmed by the waves, was ready to sink. Then the blessed Lupus and all the rest, greatly troubled, awakened their elder, that he might oppose the raging elements. He, showing himself the more resolute in proportion to the greatness of the danger, called upon Christ, and having, in the name of the Holy Trinity, taken and sprinkled a little water, quelled the raging waves, admonished his companion, encouraged all, and all with one consent uplifted their <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page034">[pg 034]</span><SPAN name="Pg034" id="Pg034" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> voices in prayer. Divine help was granted, the enemies were put to flight, a cloudless calm ensued, the winds veering about set themselves again to forward their voyage, the sea was soon traversed, and they reached the quiet of the wished-for shore. A multitude flocking thither from all parts, received the bishops, whose coming had been foretold by the predictions even of their adversaries. For the evil spirits declared their fear, and when the bishops expelled them from the bodies of the possessed, they made known the nature of the tempest, and the dangers they had occasioned, and confessed that they had been overcome by the merits and authority of these men.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the meantime the bishops speedily filled the island of Britain with the fame of their preaching and miracles; and the Word of God was by them daily preached, not only in the churches, but even in the streets and fields, so that the faithful and Catholic were everywhere confirmed, and those who had been perverted accepted the way of amendment. Like the Apostles, they acquired honour and authority through a good conscience, learning through the study of letters, and the power of working miracles through their merits. Thus the whole country readily came over to their way of thinking; the authors of the erroneous belief kept themselves in hiding, and, like evil spirits, grieved for the loss of the people that were rescued from them. At length, after long deliberation, they had the boldness to enter the lists.<SPAN id="noteref_94" name="noteref_94" href="#note_94"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">94</span></span></SPAN> They came forward in all the splendour of their wealth, with gorgeous apparel, and supported by a numerous following; choosing rather to hazard the contest, than to undergo among the people whom they had led astray, the reproach of having been silenced, lest they should seem by saying nothing to condemn themselves. An immense multitude had been attracted thither with their wives and children. The people were present as spectators and judges; the two parties stood there in very different case; on the one side was Divine faith, on the other <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page035">[pg 035]</span><SPAN name="Pg035" id="Pg035" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> human presumption; on the one side piety, on the other pride; on the one side Pelagius, the founder of their faith, on the other Christ. The blessed bishops permitted their adversaries to speak first, and their empty speech long took up the time and filled the ears with meaningless words. Then the venerable prelates poured forth the torrent of their eloquence and showered upon them the words of Apostles and Evangelists, mingling the Scriptures with their own discourse and supporting their strongest assertions by the testimony of the written Word. Vainglory was vanquished and unbelief refuted; and the heretics, at every argument put before them, not being able to reply, confessed their errors. The people, giving judgement, could scarce refrain from violence, and signified their verdict by their acclamations.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em">
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