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Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England

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<SPAN name="toc89" id="toc89"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf90" id="pdf90"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_II_Chap_IV" id="Book_II_Chap_IV" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. IV. How Laurentius and his bishops admonished the Scots to observe the unity of the Holy Church, particularly in keeping of Easter; and how Mellitus went to Rome.</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Laurentius<SPAN id= "noteref_182" name="noteref_182" href="#note_182"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">182</span></span></SPAN> succeeded Augustine in the bishopric, having been ordained thereto by the latter, in his lifetime, lest, upon his death, the Church, as yet in so unsettled a state, might begin to falter, if it should be destitute of a pastor, though but for one hour. Wherein he also followed the example of the first pastor of the Church, that is, of the most blessed Peter, chief of the Apostles, who, having founded the Church of Christ at Rome, is said to have consecrated Clement to help him in preaching the Gospel, and at the same time to be his successor. Laurentius, being advanced to the rank of archbishop, laboured indefatigably, both by frequent words of holy exhortation and constant example of good works to strengthen the foundations of the Church, which had been so nobly laid, and to carry it on to the fitting height of perfection. In short, he not only took charge of the new Church formed among the English, but endeavoured also to bestow his pastoral care upon the tribes of the ancient inhabitants of Britain, as also of the Scots, who inhabit the island of Ireland,<SPAN id="noteref_183" name="noteref_183" href= "#note_183"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">183</span></span></SPAN> which is next to Britain. For when he understood that the life and profession of the Scots in their aforesaid country, as well as of the Britons in Britain, was not truly in accordance with the practice of the Church in many matters, especially that they did not celebrate the festival of Easter at the due time, but thought that the day of the Resurrection of our Lord ought, as has been said above, to be observed between the 14th and 20th of the moon; he wrote, jointly with his fellow bishops, a hortatory epistle, entreating and conjuring them to keep the unity of peace and Catholic observance with the Church of <span class="tei tei-pb" id= "page092">[pg 092]</span><SPAN name="Pg092" id="Pg092" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> Christ spread throughout the world. The beginning of which epistle is as follows:</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em"><span class= "tei tei-q">“<span class="tei tei-hi"><span style= "font-style: italic">To our most dear brethren, the Lords Bishops and Abbots throughout all the country of the Scots,</span><SPAN id= "noteref_184" name="noteref_184" href="#note_184"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; font-style: italic; vertical-align: super">184</span></span></SPAN> <span style="font-style: italic">Laurentius, Mellitus, and Justus, Bishops, servants of the servants of God.</span></span> When the Apostolic see, according to the universal custom which it has followed elsewhere, sent us to these western parts to preach to pagan nations, and it was our lot to come into this island, which is called Britain, before we knew them, we held both the Britons and Scots in great esteem for sanctity, believing that they walked according to the custom of the universal Church; but becoming acquainted with the Britons, we thought that the Scots had been better. Now we have learnt from Bishop Dagan,<SPAN id="noteref_185" name="noteref_185" href="#note_185"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">185</span></span></SPAN> who came into this aforesaid island, and the Abbot Columban,<SPAN id= "noteref_186" name="noteref_186" href="#note_186"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">186</span></span></SPAN> in Gaul, that the Scots in no way differ from the Britons in their walk; for when Bishop Dagan came to us, not only did he refuse to eat at the same table, but even to eat in the same house where we were entertained.”</span></p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Also Laurentius with his fellow bishops wrote a letter to the bishops of the Britons, suitable to his degree, by which he endeavoured to confirm them in Catholic unity; but what he gained by so doing the present times still show.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">About this time, Mellitus, bishop of London, went to Rome, to confer with the Apostolic Pope Boniface about the necessary affairs of the English Church. And the same most reverend pope, assembling a synod of the <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page093">[pg 093]</span><SPAN name= "Pg093" id="Pg093" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> bishops of Italy,<SPAN id="noteref_187" name="noteref_187" href= "#note_187"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">187</span></span></SPAN> to prescribe rules for the life and peace of the monks, Mellitus also sat among them, in the eighth year of the reign of the Emperor Phocas, the thirteenth indiction, on the 27th of February,<SPAN id= "noteref_188" name="noteref_188" href="#note_188"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">188</span></span></SPAN> to the end that he also might sign and confirm by his authority whatsoever should be regularly decreed, and on his return into Britain might carry the decrees to the Churches of the English, to be committed to them and observed; together with letters which the same pope sent to the beloved of God, Archbishop Laurentius, and to all the clergy; as likewise to King Ethelbert and the English nation. This pope was Boniface, the fourth after the blessed Gregory, bishop of the city of Rome. He obtained for the Church of Christ from the Emperor Phocas the gift of the temple at Rome called by the ancients Pantheon, as representing all the gods; wherein he, having purified it from all defilement, dedicated a church to the holy Mother of God, and to all Christ's martyrs, to the end that, the company of devils being expelled, the blessed company of the saints might have therein a perpetual memorial.<SPAN id="noteref_189" name="noteref_189" href= "#note_189"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">189</span></span></SPAN></p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc91" id="toc91"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf92" id="pdf92"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_II_Chap_V" id="Book_II_Chap_V" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. V. How, after the death of the kings Ethelbert and Sabert, their successors restored idolatry; for which reason, both Mellitus and Justus departed out of Britain. [616</span> <span class="tei tei-hi" style= "text-align: left"><span style= "font-size: 144%; font-variant: small-caps">a.d.</span></span><span style="font-size: 144%">]</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In the year of our Lord 616, which is the twenty-first year after Augustine and his company were sent to preach to the English nation, Ethelbert, king of Kent, having most gloriously governed his temporal kingdom fifty-six years, entered into the eternal joys of the kingdom <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page094">[pg 094]</span><SPAN name= "Pg094" id="Pg094" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> of Heaven. He was the third of the English kings who ruled over all the southern provinces that are divided from the northern by the river Humber and the borders contiguous to it;<SPAN id="noteref_190" name= "noteref_190" href="#note_190"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">190</span></span></SPAN> but the first of all that ascended to the heavenly kingdom. The first who had the like sovereignty was Aelli, king of the South-Saxons; the second, Caelin, king of the West-Saxons, who, in their own language, is called Ceaulin; the third, as has been said, was Ethelbert, king of Kent; the fourth was Redwald, king of the East-Angles, who, even in the life-time of Ethelbert, had been acquiring the leadership for his own race. The fifth was Edwin, king of the Northumbrian nation, that is, of those who live in the district to the north of the river Humber; his power was greater; he had the overlordship over all the nations who inhabit Britain, both English and British, except only the people of Kent; and he reduced also under the dominion of the English, the Mevanian Islands<SPAN id="noteref_191" name="noteref_191" href= "#note_191"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">191</span></span></SPAN> of the Britons, lying between Ireland and Britain; the sixth was Oswald, the most Christian king of the Northumbrians, whose kingdom was within the same bounds; the seventh, his brother Oswy, ruled over a kingdom of like extent for a time, and for the most part subdued and made tributary the nations of the Picts and Scots, who occupy the northern parts of Britain: but of that hereafter.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">King Ethelbert died on the 24th day of the month of February, twenty-one years after he had received the faith,<SPAN id="noteref_192" name= "noteref_192" href="#note_192"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">192</span></span></SPAN> and was buried in St. Martin's chapel within the church of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, where also lies his queen, Bertha. Among other benefits which he <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page095">[pg 095]</span><SPAN name="Pg095" id="Pg095" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> conferred upon his nation in his care for them, he established, with the help of his council of wise men,<SPAN id="noteref_193" name= "noteref_193" href="#note_193"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">193</span></span></SPAN> judicial decisions, after the Roman model; which are written in the language of the English, and are still kept and observed by them. Among which, he set down first what satisfaction should be given by any one who should steal anything belonging to the Church, the bishop, or the other clergy, for he was resolved to give protection to those whom he had received along with their doctrine.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">This Ethelbert was the son of Irminric, whose father was Octa, whose father was Oeric, surnamed Oisc, from whom the kings of Kent are wont to be called Oiscings.<SPAN id="noteref_194" name="noteref_194" href= "#note_194"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">194</span></span></SPAN> His father was Hengist, who, being invited by Vortigern, first came into Britain, with his son Oisc, as has been said above.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">But after the death of Ethelbert, the accession of his son Eadbald proved very harmful to the still tender growth of the new Church; for he not only refused to accept the faith of Christ, but was also defiled with such fornication, as the Apostle testifies, as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father's wife.<SPAN id="noteref_195" name="noteref_195" href= "#note_195"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">195</span></span></SPAN> By both which crimes he gave occasion to those to return to their former uncleanness, who, under his father, had, either for favour or fear of the king, submitted to the laws of the faith and of a pure life. Nor did the unbelieving king escape without the scourge of Divine severity in chastisement and correction; for he was troubled with frequent fits of madness, and possessed by an unclean spirit. The storm of this disturbance was increased by the death of Sabert, king of the East Saxons, who departing to the heavenly kingdom, left three sons, still pagans, to inherit his temporal crown. They immediately began openly to give themselves up to idolatry, which, during their father's lifetime, they had seemed <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page096">[pg 096]</span><SPAN name= "Pg096" id="Pg096" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> somewhat to abandon, and they granted free licence to their subjects to serve idols. And when they saw the bishop, whilst celebrating Mass in the church, give the Eucharist to the people, filled, as they were, with folly and ignorance, they said to him, as is commonly reported, <span class="tei tei-q">“Why do you not give us also that white bread, which you used to give to our father Saba (for so they were wont to call him), and which you still continue to give to the people in the church?”</span> To whom he answered, <span class= "tei tei-q">“If you will be washed in that font of salvation, in which your father was washed, you may also partake of the holy Bread of which he partook; but if you despise the laver of life, you can in no wise receive the Bread of life.”</span> They replied, <span class="tei tei-q">“We will not enter into that font, because we know that we do not stand in need of it, and yet we will be refreshed by that bread.”</span> And being often earnestly admonished by him, that this could by no means be done, nor would any one be admitted to partake of the sacred Oblation without the holy cleansing, at last, they said, filled with rage, <span class= "tei tei-q">“If you will not comply with us in so small a matter as that which we require, you shall not stay in our province.”</span> And they drove him out and bade him and his company depart from their kingdom. Being driven thence, he came into Kent, to take counsel with his fellow bishops, Laurentius and Justus, and learn what was to be done in that case; and with one consent they determined that it was better for them all to return to their own country, where they might serve God in freedom of mind, than to continue to no purpose among barbarians, who had revolted from the faith. Mellitus and Justus accordingly went away first, and withdrew into the parts of Gaul, intending there to await the event. But the kings, who had driven from them the herald of the truth, did not continue long unpunished in their worship of devils. For marching out to battle against the nation of the Gewissi,<SPAN id= "noteref_196" name="noteref_196" href="#note_196"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">196</span></span></SPAN> they were all slain with their army. Nevertheless, the people, <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page097">[pg 097]</span><SPAN name= "Pg097" id="Pg097" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> having been once turned to wickedness, though the authors of it were destroyed, would not be corrected, nor return to the unity of faith and charity which is in Christ.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc93" id="toc93"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf94" id="pdf94"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_II_Chap_VI" id="Book_II_Chap_VI" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. VI. How Laurentius, being reproved by the Apostle Peter, converted King Eadbald to Christ; and how the king soon recalled Mellitus and Justus to preach the Word. [617-618</span> <span class="tei tei-hi" style= "text-align: left"><span style= "font-size: 144%; font-variant: small-caps">a.d.</span></span><span style="font-size: 144%">]</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Laurentius, being about to follow Mellitus and Justus, and to quit Britain, ordered his bed to be laid that night in the church of the blessed Apostles, Peter and Paul, which has been often mentioned before; wherein having laid himself to rest, after he had with tears poured forth many prayers to God for the state of the Church, he fell asleep; in the dead of night, the blessed chief of the Apostles appeared to him, and scourging him grievously a long time, asked of him with apostolic severity, why he was forsaking the flock which he had committed to him? or to what shepherd he was leaving, by his flight, Christ's sheep that were in the midst of wolves? <span class="tei tei-q">“Hast thou,”</span> he said, <span class= "tei tei-q">“forgotten my example, who, for the sake of those little ones, whom Christ commended to me in token of His affection, underwent at the hands of infidels and enemies of Christ, bonds, stripes, imprisonment, afflictions, and lastly, death itself, even the death of the cross, that I might at last be crowned with Him?”</span> Laurentius, the servant of Christ, roused by the scourging of the blessed Peter and his words of exhortation, went to the king as soon as morning broke, and laying aside his garment, showed the scars of the stripes which he had received. The king, astonished, asked who had presumed to inflict such stripes on so great a man. And when he heard that for the sake of his salvation the bishop had suffered these cruel blows at the hands of the Apostle of Christ, he was greatly afraid; and abjuring the worship of idols, and renouncing his unlawful marriage, he received the faith of Christ, <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page098">[pg 098]</span><SPAN name="Pg098" id="Pg098" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> and being baptized, promoted and supported the interests of the Church to the utmost of his power.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">He also sent over into Gaul, and recalled Mellitus and Justus, and bade them return to govern their churches in freedom. They came back one year after their departure, and Justus returned to the city of Rochester, where he had before presided; but the people of London would not receive Bishop Mellitus, choosing rather to be under their idolatrous high priests; for King Eadbald had not so much authority in the kingdom as his father, and was not able to restore the bishop to his church against the will and consent of the pagans. But he and his nation, after his conversion to the Lord, sought to obey the commandments of God. Lastly, he built the church of the holy Mother of God,<SPAN id="noteref_197" name="noteref_197" href="#note_197"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">197</span></span></SPAN> in the monastery of the most blessed chief of the Apostles, which was afterwards consecrated by Archbishop Mellitus.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc95" id="toc95"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf96" id="pdf96"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_II_Chap_VII" id="Book_II_Chap_VII" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. VII. How Bishop Mellitus by prayer quenched a fire in his city. [619</span> <span class= "tei tei-hi" style="text-align: left"><span style= "font-size: 144%; font-variant: small-caps">a.d.</span></span><span style="font-size: 144%">]</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In this king's reign, the blessed Archbishop Laurentius was taken up to the heavenly kingdom: he was buried in the church and monastery of the holy Apostle Peter, close by his predecessor Augustine, on the 2nd day of the month of February.<SPAN id="noteref_198" name="noteref_198" href="#note_198"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">198</span></span></SPAN> Mellitus, who was bishop of London, succeeded to the see of Canterbury, being the third archbishop from Augustine; Justus, who was still living, governed the church of Rochester. These ruled the Church of the English with much care and industry, and received letters of exhortation from Boniface,<SPAN id="noteref_199" name= "noteref_199" href="#note_199"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">199</span></span></SPAN> bishop of the Roman Apostolic see, who presided over the Church after Deusdedit, in the year of our Lord 619. Mellitus laboured under the bodily infirmity of gout, but his mind was sound and active, cheerfully passing over all earthly things, and always aspiring to love, seek, and attain to <span class="tei tei-pb" id= "page099">[pg 099]</span><SPAN name="Pg099" id="Pg099" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> those which are celestial. He was noble by birth, but still nobler by the elevation of his mind.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">In short, that I may give one instance of his power, from which the rest may be inferred, it happened once that the city of Canterbury, being set on fire through carelessness, was in danger of being consumed by the spreading conflagration; water was thrown on the fire in vain; a considerable part of the city was already destroyed, and the fierce flames were advancing towards the bishop's abode, when he, trusting in God, where human help failed, ordered himself to be carried towards the raging masses of fire which were spreading on every side. The church of the four crowned Martyrs<SPAN id= "noteref_200" name="noteref_200" href="#note_200"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">200</span></span></SPAN> was in the place where the fire raged most fiercely. The bishop, being carried thither by his servants, weak as he was, set about averting by prayer the danger which the strong hands of active men had not been able to overcome with all their exertions. Immediately the wind, which blowing from the south had spread the conflagration throughout the city, veered to the north, and thus prevented the destruction of those places that had been exposed to its full violence, then it ceased entirely and there was a calm, while the flames likewise sank and were extinguished. And because the man of God burned with the fire of divine love, and was wont to drive away the storms of the powers of the air, by his frequent prayers and at his bidding, from doing harm to himself, or his people, it was meet that he should be allowed to prevail over the winds and flames of this world, and to obtain that they should not injure him or his.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">This archbishop also, having ruled the church five years, departed to heaven in the reign of King Eadbald, and was buried with his fathers in the monastery and church, which we have so often mentioned, of the most <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page100">[pg 100]</span><SPAN name= "Pg100" id="Pg100" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> blessed chief of the Apostles, in the year of our Lord 624, on the 24th day of April.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc97" id="toc97"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf98" id="pdf98"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_II_Chap_VIII" id="Book_II_Chap_VIII" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. VIII. How Pope Boniface sent the Pall and a letter to Justus, successor to Mellitus. [624</span> <span class="tei tei-hi" style="text-align: left"><span style= "font-size: 144%; font-variant: small-caps">a.d.</span></span><span style="font-size: 144%">]</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">Justus, bishop of the church of Rochester, immediately succeeded Mellitus in the archbishopric. He consecrated Romanus bishop of that see in his own stead, having obtained authority to ordain bishops from Pope Boniface, whom we mentioned above as successor to Deusdedit: of which licence this is the form:</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em"><span class= "tei tei-q">“<span class="tei tei-hi"><span style= "font-style: italic">Boniface, to his most beloved brother Justus.</span></span> We have learnt not only from the contents of your letter addressed to us, but from the fulfilment granted to your work, how faithfully and vigilantly you have laboured, my brother, for the Gospel of Christ; for Almighty God has not forsaken either the mystery of His Name, or the fruit of your labours, having Himself faithfully promised to the preachers of the Gospel, <span class="tei tei-q">‘Lo! I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world’</span>;<SPAN id="noteref_201" name="noteref_201" href="#note_201"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">201</span></span></SPAN> which promise His mercy has particularly manifested in this ministry imposed upon you, opening the hearts of the nations to receive the wondrous mystery of your preaching. For He has blessed with a rich reward your Eminence's acceptable course, by the support of His loving kindness; granting a plentiful increase to your labours in the faithful management of the talents committed to you, and bestowing it on that which you might confirm to many generations.<SPAN id="noteref_202" name="noteref_202" href= "#note_202"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">202</span></span></SPAN> This is conferred on you by that recompense whereby, constantly persevering in the ministry imposed upon you, you have awaited with praiseworthy patience the redemption of that nation, and that they might profit by your merits, salvation has been bestowed <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page101">[pg 101]</span><SPAN name= "Pg101" id="Pg101" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> on them. For our Lord Himself says, <span class="tei tei-q">‘He that endureth to the end shall be saved.’</span><SPAN id="noteref_203" name="noteref_203" href="#note_203"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">203</span></span></SPAN> You are, therefore, saved by the hope of patience, and the virtue of endurance, to the end that the hearts of unbelievers, being cleansed from their natural disease of superstition, might obtain the mercy of their Saviour: for having received letters from our son Adulwald,<SPAN id="noteref_204" name="noteref_204" href= "#note_204"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">204</span></span></SPAN> we perceive with how much knowledge of the Sacred Word you, my brother, have brought his mind to the belief in true conversion and the certainty of the faith. Therefore, firmly confiding in the long-suffering of the Divine clemency, we believe that, through the ministry of your preaching, there will ensue most full salvation not only of the nations subject to him, but also of their neighbours; to the end, that as it is written, the recompense of a perfect work may be conferred on you by the Lord, the Rewarder of all the just; and that the universal confession of all nations, having received the mystery of the Christian faith, may declare, that in truth <span class="tei tei-q">‘Their sound is gone out into all the earth, and their words unto the end of the world.’</span><SPAN id="noteref_205" name="noteref_205" href= "#note_205"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">205</span></span></SPAN></span></p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em"><span class= "tei tei-q">“We have also, my brother, moved by the warmth of our goodwill, sent you by the bearer of these presents, the pall, giving you authority to use it only in the celebration of the Sacred Mysteries; granting to you likewise to ordain bishops when there shall be occasion, through the Lord's mercy; that so the Gospel of Christ, by the preaching of many, may be spread abroad in all the nations that are not yet converted. You must, therefore, endeavour, my brother, to preserve with unblemished sincerity of mind that which you have received through the kindness of the Apostolic see, bearing in mind what it is that is represented by the honourable vestment which you have obtained to be borne on your shoulders. And imploring the Divine mercy, study to show yourself such that you may present before the tribunal of the Supreme Judge that is to come, the rewards of the favour granted to you, not with guiltiness, but with the benefit of souls.</span></p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em"><span class= "tei tei-q">“God preserve you in safety, most dear brother!”</span></p> </div><span class="tei tei-pb" id="page102">[pg 102]</span><SPAN name= "Pg102" id="Pg102" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em"> <SPAN name="toc99" id="toc99"></SPAN> <SPAN name="pdf100" id="pdf100"></SPAN> <SPAN name="Book_II_Chap_IX" id="Book_II_Chap_IX" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> <h2 class="tei tei-head" style= "text-align: left; margin-bottom: 2.88em; margin-top: 2.88em"> <span style="font-size: 144%">Chap. IX. Of the reign of King Edwin, and how Paulinus, coming to preach the Gospel, first converted his daughter and others to the mysteries of the faith of Christ. [625-626</span> <span class="tei tei-hi" style= "text-align: left"><span style= "font-size: 144%; font-variant: small-caps">a.d.</span></span><span style="font-size: 144%">]</span></h2> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">At this time the nation of the Northumbrians, that is, the English tribe dwelling on the north side of the river Humber, with their king, Edwin,<SPAN id= "noteref_206" name="noteref_206" href="#note_206"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">206</span></span></SPAN> received the Word of faith through the preaching of Paulinus,<SPAN id= "noteref_207" name="noteref_207" href="#note_207"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">207</span></span></SPAN> of whom we have before spoken. This king, as an earnest of his reception of the faith, and his share in the heavenly kingdom, received an increase also of his temporal realm, for he reduced under his dominion all the parts of Britain<SPAN id="noteref_208" name="noteref_208" href="#note_208"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">208</span></span></SPAN> that were provinces either of the English, or of the Britons, a thing which no English king had ever done before; and he even subjected to the English the Mevanian islands, as has been said above.<SPAN id= "noteref_209" name="noteref_209" href="#note_209"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">209</span></span></SPAN> The more important of these, which is to the southward, is the larger in extent, and more fruitful, containing nine hundred and sixty families, according to the English computation; the other contains above three hundred.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">The occasion of this nation's reception of the faith was the alliance by marriage of their aforesaid king with the kings of Kent, for he had taken to wife Ethelberg, otherwise called Tata,<SPAN id="noteref_210" name= "noteref_210" href="#note_210"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">210</span></span></SPAN> daughter to King Ethelbert. When he first sent ambassadors to ask her in marriage of her brother Eadbald, who then reigned in Kent, he received the answer, <span class="tei tei-q">“That it was not lawful to give a Christian maiden in marriage to a pagan husband, lest the faith and the mysteries of the heavenly King should be profaned by her union with a king that was altogether a stranger to the worship of the true God.”</span> This answer being brought to Edwin by his messengers, he promised that he would in no manner act in opposition to the Christian faith, which the maiden professed; but would give leave to her, and all that went with her, men and <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page103">[pg 103]</span><SPAN name= "Pg103" id="Pg103" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> women, bishops and clergy, to follow their faith and worship after the custom of the Christians. Nor did he refuse to accept that religion himself, if, being examined by wise men, it should be found more holy and more worthy of God.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">So the maiden was promised, and sent to Edwin, and in accordance with the agreement, Paulinus, a man beloved of God, was ordained bishop, to go with her, and by daily exhortations, and celebrating the heavenly Mysteries, to confirm her and her company, lest they should be corrupted by intercourse with the pagans. Paulinus was ordained bishop by the Archbishop Justus, on the 21st day of July, in the year of our Lord 625, and so came to King Edwin with the aforesaid maiden as an attendant on their union in the flesh. But his mind was wholly bent upon calling the nation to which he was sent to the knowledge of truth; according to the words of the Apostle, <span class="tei tei-q">“To espouse her to the one true Husband, that he might present her as a chaste virgin to Christ.”</span><SPAN id="noteref_211" name="noteref_211" href= "#note_211"><span class="tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">211</span></span></SPAN> Being come into that province, he laboured much, not only to retain those that went with him, by the help of God, that they should not abandon the faith, but, if haply he might, to convert some of the pagans to the grace of the faith by his preaching. But, as the Apostle says, though he laboured long in the Word, <span class= "tei tei-q">“The god of this world blinded the minds of them that believed not, lest the light of the glorious Gospel of Christ should shine unto them.”</span><SPAN id="noteref_212" name= "noteref_212" href="#note_212"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">212</span></span></SPAN></p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">The next year there came into the province one called Eumer, sent by the king of the West-Saxons, whose name was Cuichelm,<SPAN id="noteref_213" name= "noteref_213" href="#note_213"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">213</span></span></SPAN> to lie in wait for King Edwin, in hopes at once to deprive him of his kingdom and his life. He had a two-edged dagger, dipped in poison, to the end that, if the wound inflicted by the weapon did not avail to kill the king, it might be aided by the deadly venom. He came to the king on the first day of the Easter <span class="tei tei-pb" id="page104">[pg 104]</span><SPAN name="Pg104" id="Pg104" class= "tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> festival,<SPAN id="noteref_214" name= "noteref_214" href="#note_214"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">214</span></span></SPAN> at the river Derwent, where there was then a royal township,<SPAN id= "noteref_215" name="noteref_215" href="#note_215"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">215</span></span></SPAN> and being admitted as if to deliver a message from his master, whilst unfolding in cunning words his pretended embassy, he started up on a sudden, and unsheathing the dagger under his garment, assaulted the king. When Lilla, the king's most devoted servant, saw this, having no buckler at hand to protect the king from death, he at once interposed his own body to receive the blow; but the enemy struck home with such force, that he wounded the king through the body of the slaughtered thegn. Being then attacked on all sides with swords, in the confusion he also slew impiously with his dagger another of the thegns, whose name was Forthhere.</p> <p class="tei tei-p" style="margin-bottom: 1.00em">On that same holy Easter night, the queen had brought forth to the king a daughter, called Eanfled. The king, in the presence of Bishop Paulinus, gave thanks to his gods for the birth of his daughter; and the bishop, on his part, began to give thanks to Christ, and to tell the king, that by his prayers to Him he had obtained that the queen should bring forth the child in safety, and without grievous pain. The king, delighted with his words, promised, that if God would grant him life and victory over the king by whom the murderer who had wounded him had been sent, he would renounce his idols, and serve Christ; and as a pledge that he would perform his promise, he delivered up that same daughter to Bishop Paulinus, to be consecrated to Christ. She was the first to be baptized of the nation of the Northumbrians, and she received Baptism on the holy day of Pentecost, along with eleven others of her house.<SPAN id= "noteref_216" name="noteref_216" href="#note_216"><span class= "tei tei-noteref"><span style= "font-size: 60%; vertical-align: super">216</span></span></SPAN> At that time, the king, being recovered of the wound which he had received, raised an army and marched against <span class= "tei tei-pb" id="page105">[pg 105]</span><SPAN name="Pg105" id="Pg105" class="tei tei-anchor"></SPAN> the nation of the West-Saxons; and engaging in war, either slew or received in surrender all those of whom he learned that they had conspired to murder him. So he returned victorious into his own country, but he would not immediately and unadvisedly embrace the mysteries of the Christian faith, though he no longer worshipped idols, ever since he made the promise that he would serve Christ; but first took heed earnestly to be instructed at leisure by the venerable Paulinus, in the knowledge of faith, and to confer with such as he knew to be the wisest of his chief men, inquiring what they thought was fittest to be done in that case. And being a man of great natural sagacity, he often sat alone by himself a long time in silence, deliberating in the depths of his heart how he should proceed, and to which religion he should adhere.</p> </div> <div class="tei tei-div" style= "margin-bottom: 4.00em; margin-top: 4.00em">
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