English grammar

Conjunctions - Subordinating conjunctions


Subordinating conjunctions

The most common subordinating conjunctions in the English language include after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, where as, wherever, and while. Some subordinating conjunctions (until and while), when used to introduce a phrase instead of a full clause, become prepositions with identical meanings.

  • conjunctions of time, including after, before, since, until, when, while;
  • conjunctions of cause and effect, including because, since, now that, as, in order that, so;
  • conjunctions of opposition or concession, such as although, though, even though, whereas, while;
  • conjunctions of condition: such as if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, in case (that);
  • the conjunction that, which produces content clauses, as well as words that produce interrogative content clauses: whether, where, when, how, etc.


  • I have been working at the bank since 2005.
  • She is studying English so that she can move to London.
  • They went to the beach although it was raining.